Diabetes mellitus: Classification, mediators, and complications; A gate to identify potential targets for the development of new effective treatments

Samar A. Antar, Nada A. Ashour, Marwa Sharaky, Muhammad Khattab, Naira A. Ashour, Roaa T. Zaid, Eun Joo Roh, Ahmed Elkamhawy, Ahmed A. Al-Karmalawy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nowadays, diabetes mellitus has emerged as a significant global public health concern with a remarkable increase in its prevalence. This review article focuses on the definition of diabetes mellitus and its classification into different types, including type 1 diabetes (idiopathic and fulminant), type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, hybrid forms, slowly evolving immune-mediated diabetes, ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes, and other special types. Diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus are also discussed. The role of inflammation in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is explored, along with the mediators and potential anti-inflammatory treatments. Furthermore, the involvement of various organs in diabetes mellitus is highlighted, such as the role of adipose tissue and obesity, gut microbiota, and pancreatic β-cells. The manifestation of pancreatic Langerhans β-cell islet inflammation, oxidative stress, and impaired insulin production and secretion are addressed. Additionally, the impact of diabetes mellitus on liver cirrhosis, acute kidney injury, immune system complications, and other diabetic complications like retinopathy and neuropathy is examined. Therefore, further research is required to enhance diagnosis, prevent chronic complications, and identify potential therapeutic targets for the management of diabetes mellitus and its associated dysfunctions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115734
JournalBiomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
Volume168
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes

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