Development of Visual Field Screening Procedures: A Case Study of the Octopus Perimeter

Andrew Turpin, Jonathan S Myers, Allison M McKendrick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE: We develop a methodology for designing perimetric screening procedures, using Octopus perimeters as a case study.

METHODS: The process has three stages: analytically determining specificity and number of presentations required for different multisampling suprathreshold schemes at a single location of the visual field, ranking visual field locations by their positive predictive value (PPV) for glaucoma, and determining a pass/fail criteria for the test. For the case study the Octopus G-program visual field test pattern is used, and a dataset of 385 glaucoma and 86 normal patients.

RESULTS: Using a 1-of-3 sampling strategy at a level equal to the 95 percentile of normal observers gave the most robust specificity under the influences of false-negative responses using an average of 1.5 presentations per location. The PPV analysis gave 19 locations that completely classified our glaucomatous data. A further 9 points were added to screen for nonglaucomatous loss. The final stage found that insisting that 3 locations are missed for the screening to fail gave a simulated specificity and sensitivity of approximately 95% for unreliable responders.

CONCLUSIONS: Our method gives a principled approach to choosing between the many parameters of a visual field screening procedure. We have developed a procedure for the Octopus that should terminate in less than 1 minute for normal observers with high specificity and sensitivity to glaucoma.

TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: Visual field screening is used in community settings and eye care practice. This study provides a principled approach to the development of such screening procedures and details a new procedure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3
Pages (from-to)3
JournalTranslational vision science & technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2016
Externally publishedYes


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