Development of ensemble learning models to evaluate the strength of coal-grout materials

Yuantian Sun, Guichen Li, Nong Zhang, Qingliang Chang, Jiahui Xu, Junfei Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


In the loose and fractured coal seam with particularly low uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), driving a roadway is extremely difficult as roof falling and wall spalling occur frequently. To address this issue, the jet grouting (JG) technique (high-pressure grout mixed with coal particles) was first introduced in this study to improve the self-supporting ability of coal mass. To evaluate the strength of the jet-grouted coal-grout composite (JG composite), the UCS evolution patterns were analyzed by preparing 405 specimens combining the influential variables of grout types, curing time, and coal to grout (C/G) ratio. Furthermore, the relationships between UCS and these influencing variables were modeled using ensemble learning methods i.e. gradient boosted regression tree (GBRT) and random forest (RF) with their hyperparameters tuned by the particle swarm optimization (PSO). The results showed that the chemical grout composite has higher short-term strength, while the cement grout composite can achieve more stable strength in the long term. The PSO-GBRT and PSO-RF models can both achieve high prediction accuracy. Also, the variable importance analysis demonstrated that the grout type and curing time should be considered carefully. This study provides a robust intelligent model for predicting UCS of JG composites, which boosts JG design in the field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-162
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Mining Science and Technology
Issue number2
Early online date18 Sept 2020
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


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