Development of efficient threshold strategies for frequency doubling technology perimetry using computer simulation

Andrew Turpin, Allison M McKendrick, Chris A Johnson, Algis J Vingrys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE: To develop new test procedures for frequency-doubling technology (FDT) perimetry that improve performance beyond those currently used.

METHODS: Two novel threshold estimation procedures were evaluated: a rapid, efficient binary search technique (REBS) and a maximum-likelihood estimation (ZEST) procedure. A computerized visual field simulation model was developed to determine the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures. This model was constructed using previously derived characteristics of FDT perimetry from both normal observers (n = 506) and those with glaucomatous visual field loss (n = 352). The computer simulation program was used to determine the best parameters for the two new procedures and the effect of variability and response errors on algorithm performance. Comparisons were made to the performance of the modified binary search (MOBS) procedure used in the current commercial implementation of the FDT perimeter.

RESULTS: Both the optimized REBS and ZEST procedures approximately halved the time required for FDT threshold testing without loss of accuracy or reproducibility.

CONCLUSIONS: With suitable parameter choices, comparable performance was achieved using either ZEST or REBS. Simulation results indicate that accurate thresholds can be measured with an optimized ZEST or REBS procedure in approximately half the time required by traditional estimation methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)322-231
Number of pages10
JournalInvestigative ophthalmology & visual science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2002
Externally publishedYes


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