Development of a short form of the attitudes toward mathematics inventory

S.Y. Lim, Elaine Chapman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Citations (Scopus)
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Existing instruments designed to measure mathematics attitudes were too long, dated, or assessed with only western samples. To address this issue, a shortened version of the Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory (short ATMI) which measures four subscales—enjoyment of mathematics, motivation to do mathematics, self-confidence in mathematics, and perceived value of mathematics—was created. Its factor structure, reliability, and validity were assessed with 1,601 participants from Singapore. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original four-factor structure. Within this structure, however, several items were found to correlate highly with others. Their removal either improved or did not impact the properties of the instrument. As a result, these items were removed to produce the short ATMI. Furthermore, a very high correlation (r = .96) was found between the enjoyment and motivation subscales. Results of further analysis suggested the removal of the motivation subscale. The short ATMI exhibited strong correlations with the original scale (mean r = .96), good overall internal consistencies, both for the full short version (α = .93) and for the individual subscales (mean α = .87), and satisfactory test–retest reliability over a 1-month period (mean r xx  = .75). The validity of the short ATMI was further demonstrated through inter-correlations between its subscales, and through correlations with mathematics anxiety and achievement test scores. Participants were able to complete the short ATMI in less than 10 min, making it a viable option when survey administration time is limited. This time would reduce further with the removal of the motivation subscale.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-164
JournalEducational Studies in Mathematics: an international journal
Issue number1
Early online date7 Jun 2012
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


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