Development and validation of a multifactor mindfulness scale in youth: The comprehensive inventory of mindfulness experiences-adolescents (CHIME-A)

Catherine Johnson, Christine Burke, Sally Brinkman, Tracey D. Wade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)


Mindfulness-based interventions show consistent benefits in adults for a range of pathologies, but exploration of these approaches in youth is an emergent field, with limited measures of mindfulness for this population. This study aimed to investigate whether multifactor scales of mindfulness can be used in adolescents. A series of studies are presented assessing the performance of a recently developed adult measure, the Comprehensive Inventory of Mindfulness Experiences (CHIME) in 4 early adolescent samples. Study 1 was an investigation of how well the full adult measure (37 items) was understood by youth (N = 292). Study 2 piloted a revision of items in child friendly language with a small group (N = 48). The refined questionnaire for adolescents (CHIME-A) was then tested in Study 3 in a larger sample (N = 461) and subjected to exploratory factor analysis and a range of external validity measures. Study 4 was a confirmatory factor analysis in a new sample (N = 498) with additional external validity measures. Study 5 tested temporal stability (N = 120). Results supported an 8-factor 25-item measure of mindfulness in adolescents, with excellent model fit indices and sound internal consistency for the 8 subscales. Although the CFA supported an overarching factor, internal reliability of a combined total score was poor. The development of a multifactor measure represents a first step toward testing developmental models of mindfulness in young people. This in turn will aid construction of evidence based interventions that are not simply downward derivations of adult mindfulness programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-281
Number of pages18
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017


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