Developing machine learning systems worthy of trust for infection science: a requirement for future implementation into clinical practice

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Abstract

Infection science is a discipline of healthcare which includes clinical microbiology, public health microbiology, mechanisms of microbial disease, and antimicrobial countermeasures. The importance of infection science has become more apparent in recent years during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic and subsequent highlighting of critical operational domains within infection science including the hospital, clinical laboratory, and public health environments to prevent, manage, and treat infectious diseases. However, as the global community transitions beyond the pandemic, the importance of infection science remains, with emerging infectious diseases, bloodstream infections, sepsis, and antimicrobial resistance becoming increasingly significant contributions to the burden of global disease. Machine learning (ML) is frequently applied in healthcare and medical domains, with growing interest in the application of ML techniques to problems in infection science. This has the potential to address several key aspects including improving patient outcomes, optimising workflows in the clinical laboratory, and supporting the management of public health. However, despite promising results, the implementation of ML into clinical practice and workflows is limited. Enabling the migration of ML models from the research to real world environment requires the development of trustworthy ML systems that support the requirements of users, stakeholders, and regulatory agencies. This paper will provide readers with a brief introduction to infection science, outline the principles of trustworthy ML systems, provide examples of the application of these principles in infection science, and propose future directions for moving towards the development of trustworthy ML systems in infection science.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1260602
Journal Frontiers in Digital Health
Volume5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

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