Climate change seriously impacts global agriculture, with rising temperatures directly affecting the yield. Vegetables are an essential part of daily human consumption and thus have importance among all agricultural crops. The human population is increasing daily, so there is a need for alternative ways which can be helpful in maximizing the harvestable yield of vegetables. The increase in temperature directly affects the plants’ biochemical and molecular processes; having a significant impact on quality and yield. Breeding for climate-resilient crops with good yields takes a long time and lots of breeding efforts. However, with the advent of new omics technologies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, the efficiency and efficacy of unearthing information on pathways associated with high-temperature stress resilience has improved in many of the vegetable crops. Besides omics, the use of genomics-assisted breeding and new breeding approaches such as gene editing and speed breeding allow creation of modern vegetable cultivars that are more resilient to high temperatures. Collectively, these approaches will shorten the time to create and release novel vegetable varieties to meet growing demands for productivity and quality. This review discusses the effects of heat stress on vegetables and highlights recent research with a focus on how omics and genome editing can produce temperature-resilient vegetables more efficiently and faster.