Radiotherapy is one of the cornerstone treatments for endometrial cancer and has successfully diminished the risk of local recurrences after surgery. However, a considerable percentage of patients suffers tumor relapse due to radioresistance mechanisms. Knowledge about the molecular determinants that confer radioresistance or radiosensitivity in endometrial cancer is still partial, as opposed to other cancers. In this review, we have highlighted different central cellular signaling pathways and processes that are known to modulate response to radiotherapy in endometrial cancer such as PI3K/AKT, MAPK and NF-κB pathways, growth factor receptor signaling, DNA damage repair mechanisms and the immune system. Moreover, we have listed different clinical trials employing targeted therapies against some of the aforementioned signaling pathways and members with radiotherapy. Finally, we have identified the latest advances in radiotherapy that have started being utilized in endometrial cancer, which include modern radiotherapy and radiogenomics. New molecular and genetic studies in association with the analysis of radiation responses in endometrial cancer will assist clinicians in taking suitable decisions for each individual patient and pave the path for personalized radiotherapy.