Determinants of Cardiovascular Risk in 7000 Youth with Type 1 Diabetes in the Australasian Diabetes Data Network

ADDN Study Group

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Context: Cardiovascular disease occurs prematurely in type 1 diabetes. The additional risk of overweight is not well characterized. Objective: The primary aim was to measure the impact of body mass index (BMI) in youth with type 1 diabetes on cardiovascular risk factors. The secondary aim was to identify other determinants of cardiovascular risk. Design: Observational longitudinal study of 7061 youth with type 1 diabetes followed for median 7.3 (interquartile range [IQR] 4-11) years over 41 (IQR 29-56) visits until March 2019. Setting: 15 tertiary care diabetes centers in the Australasian Diabetes Data Network. Participants were aged 2 to 25 years at baseline, with at least 2 measurements of BMI and blood pressure. Main Outcome Measure: Standardized systolic and diastolic blood pressure scores and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were co-primary outcomes. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was the secondary outcome. Results: BMI z-score related independently to standardized blood pressure z- scores and non-HDL cholesterol. An increase in 1 BMI z-score related to an average increase in systolic/diastolic blood pressure of 3.8/1.4 mmHg and an increase in non-HDL cholesterol (coefficient + 0.16 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.18; P < 0.001) and in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Females had higher blood pressure z-scores, higher non-HDL and LDL cholesterol, and higher urinary albumin/creatinine than males. Indigenous youth had markedly higher urinary albumin/creatinine (coefficient + 2.15 mg/mmol, 95% CI, 1.27-3.03; P < 0.001) and higher non-HDL cholesterol than non-Indigenous youth. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion was associated independently with lower non-HDL cholesterol and lower urinary albumin/creatinine. Conclusions: BMI had a modest independent effect on cardiovascular risk. Females and Indigenous Australians in particular had a more adverse risk profile.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-142
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes


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