Protein histidine phosphorylation is well established as an important part of signalling systems in bacteria, fungi and plants and there is growing evidence of its role in mammalian cell biology. Compared to phosphoserine, phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine, phosphohistidine is relatively labile, especially under the acidic conditions that were developed to analyse protein phosphorylation. In recent years, there has been an increasing impetus to develop specific methods for the analysis of histidine phosphorylation and assay of histidine kinase activity. Most recently attention has focussed on the application of mass spectrometry to this end. This review provides an overview of methods available for the detection and analysis of phosphohistidine in phosphoproteins, with particular emphasis on the application of mass spectrometric techniques.