Design, Preparation, and Physicochemical Characterisation of Alginate-Based Honey-Loaded Topical Formulations

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Honey has widespread use as a nutritional supplement and flavouring agent. Its diverse bioactivities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties, have also made it an aspirant natural product for therapeutic applications. Honey is highly viscous and very sticky, and its acceptance as a medicinal product will require formulation into products that are not only effective but also convenient for consumers to use. This study presents the design, preparation, and physicochemical characterisation of three types of alginate-based topical formulations incorporating a honey. The honeys applied were from Western Australia, comprising a Jarrah honey, two types of Manuka honeys, and a Coastal Peppermint honey. A New Zealand Manuka honey served as comparator honey. The three formulations were a pre-gel solution consisting of 2–3% (w/v) sodium alginate solution with 70% (w/v) honey, as well as a wet sheet and a dry sheet. The latter two formulations were obtained by further processing the respective pre-gel solutions. Physical properties of the different honey-loaded pre-gel solutions (i.e., pH, colour profile, moisture content, spreadability, and viscosity), wet sheets (i.e., dimension, morphology, and tensile strength) and dry sheets (i.e., dimension, morphology, tensile strength, and swelling index) were determined. High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography was applied to analyse selected non-sugar honey constituents to assess the impacts of formulation on the honey chemical composition. This study demonstrates that, irrespective of the honey type utilised, the developed manufacturing techniques yielded topical formulations with high honey content while preserving the integrity of the honey constituents. A storage stability study was conducted on formulations containing the WA Jarrah or Manuka 2 honey. The samples, appropriately packaged and stored over 6 months at 5, 30, and 40 °C, were shown to retain all physical characteristics with no loss of integrity of the monitored honey constituents.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1483
Number of pages26
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 12 May 2023


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