When exposed to high levels of noise, earmuffs are often used to avoid hearing loss. However, active noise control earmuffs may exhibit nonlinearities under excessive levels of noise, due to their low-power characteristics of the loudspeakers, and thus nonlinear control algorithms are required to improve the control performance. In this paper, an analytical model of a nonlinear active noise control earmuff is investigated. Based on this model, a robust state feedback control law is designed in the framework of linear matrix inequalities with respect to the parametric uncertainties of the loudspeaker and the limitation of control input. Then the backstepping approach is adopted to force the nonlinear part of the loudspeaker to track the derived state feedback signal and estimate the unknown parameters. Both recorded vehicle noise and multi-frequency noise are used to test the effectiveness of the proposed controller and the control performance is compared with that of a widely accepted nonlinear generalized functional link artificial neural network algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller is capable of attenuating the interior noise and reducing harmonic and intermodulation distortions significantly.