Description of an ecological niche for a mixed local/nonlocal dispersal: An evolution equation and a new Neumann condition arising from the superposition of Brownian and Lévy processes

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Abstract

We propose here a motivation for a mixed local/nonlocal problem with a new type of Neumann condition. Our description is based on formal expansions and approximations. In a nutshell, a biological species is supposed to diffuse either by a random walk or by a jump process, according to prescribed probabilities. If the process makes an individual exit the niche, it must come to the niche right away, by selecting the return point according to the underlying stochastic process. More precisely, if the random particle exits the domain, it is forced to immediately reenter the domain, and the new point in the domain is chosen randomly by following a bouncing process with the same distribution as the original one. By a suitable definition outside the niche, the density of the population ends up solving a mixed local/nonlocal equation, in which the dispersion is given by the superposition of the classical and the fractional Laplacian. This density function satisfies two types of Neumann conditions, namely the classical Neumann condition on the boundary of the niche, and a nonlocal Neumann condition in the exterior of the niche.

Original languageEnglish
Article number126052
JournalPhysica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications
Volume575
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021

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