The bodies and faecal pellets of the house dust mite (HDM), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, are the source of many allergenic and nonallergenic proteins. One of these, the 14-kDa bacteriolytic enzyme LytFM, originally isolated from the spent HDM growth medium, may contribute to bacteriolytic activity previously detected by zymography at 14 kDa in the culture supernatants of some bacterial species isolated from surface-sterilised HDM. Based on previously reported findings of lateral gene transfer between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, we investigated the presence of lytFM in the genomes of nine Gram-positive bacteria from surface-sterilised HDM, and the expression by these isolates of LytFM and its variants LytFM1/LytFM2. The lytFM gene was detected by PCR in the genomes of three of the isolates: Bacillus licheniformis strain 1, B. licheniformis strain 2 and Staphylococcus aureus. Expression of the variant LytFM1 was detected in culture supernatants of these bacteria by mass spectrometry (MS) and ELISA, and the bacterial LytFM proteins were shown by zymography to be able to hydrolyse peptidoglycan. Our previous reports of LytFM homologues in other mite species and their phylogenetic analysis had suggested that they originated from a common mite ancestor. The phylogenetic analysis reported herein and the detection of other D. pteronyssinus proteins by MS in the culture supernatants of the three isolates that secreted LytFM1 further support the hypothesis of lateral gene transfer to the bacterial endosymbionts from their HDM host. The complete sequence homology observed between the genes amplified from the microbes and those in their eukaryotic host indicated that the lateral gene transfer was an event that occurred recently.