Although reports suggest that dendritic cells (DC) are involved in the allergic reaction characterized by a T helper cell type 2 (Th2) profile, the role of myeloid (M-DC) and plasmacytoid DC (P-DC), controlling the balance Th1/Th2, remains unknown. Here, we showed that in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt)-sensitized allergic patients and in healthy donors, M-DC displayed a higher capacity to capture Der p 1, a major allergen of Dpt, than did P-DC. However, Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from healthy subjects overexpressed CD80 and secreted interleukin (IL)-10, whereas M-DC from allergic patients did not. In contrast, with Der p 1-pulsed P-DC from both groups, no increase in human leukocyte antigen-DR, CD80, and CD86 and no IL-10 secretion were detected. When cocultured with allogeneic naive CD4+ T cells from healthy donors, Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from allergic patients favored a Th1 profile [interferon (IFN)-γhigh/IL-4low] and Der p 1-pulsed P-DC, a Th2 profile (IFN-γlow/IL-4high). In healthy donors, no T cell polarization (IFN-γlow/IL-4low) was induced by Der p 1-pulsed M-DC or P-DC, but in response to Der p 1-pulsed M-DC, T cells secreted IL-10. The neutralization of IL-10 produced by Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from healthy donors led to an inhibition of IL-10 production by T cells and a polarization toward a type 1. Thus, IL-10 produced by M-DC might be an essential mediator controlling the balance between tolerance and allergic status. In addition, P-DC could contribute to the steady state in healthy donors or to the development of a Th2 response in allergic donors.