Demographic and clinical factors as determinants of serum levels of prostate specific antigen and its derivatives

M.A. Gray, B. Delahunt, J.R. Fowles, Philip Weinstein, R.R. Cooke, J.N. Nacey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Background: To characterise the associationbetween demographic and clinical factors and levels of totalprostate specific antigen (tPSA) and its molecular derivatives[complexed PSA (cPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and the ratio of freeto total PSA (%fPSA)] in New Zealand Maori, PacificIslanders and Europeans, in order to determine whetherreported ethnic differences in PSA can be explained by lifestyleand social factors. Materials and Methods: Demographic andclinical factors were examined in relation to tPSA, fPSA andcPSA levels, in 1405 Maori, Pacific Island and New ZealandEuropean men with no clinical evidence of prostate cancer, inthe Wellington region of New Zealand. Any associationsbetween levels of PSA and PSA derivatives and body massindex, smoking status, family cancer history, non-steroidal antiinflammatory/vitamin supplement usage, number of sexualpartners, age at first intercourse, previous vasectomy,marital/partnership status, educational level and socioeconomicstatus were investigated by backwards stepwiseregression analysis, correcting for age, ethnicity and urinarysymptoms. Results: Not being married/partnered wasassociated with increased tPSA, fPSA and cPSA. tPSA andcPSA decreased with regular non-steroidal anti-inflammatoryuse. cPSA was decreased in subjects with a first degree relativewith any form of cancer. tPSA and fPSA were decreased if thebody mass index was > 34. fPSA and %fPSA were decreasedin current and former smokers. Conclusion: Demographic andclinical factors appear to have a significant effect on levels ofPSA and its various derivatives and may account for previouslyobserved ethnic differences. It is important that theseassociations are taken into account when comparingindividual PSA results with standard reference ranges.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2069-2072
JournalAnticancer Research
Issue number3B
Publication statusPublished - 2004


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