The effect of chronic cocaine administration on the in vivo occupation of dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes was examined using the irreversible receptor blocker N‐ethoxycarbonyl‐2‐ethoxy‐1, 2‐dihydroquinoline (EEDQ). Rats were given continuous infusions of cocaine (vehicle, 2.5, 7.5, or 22.5 mg/day) via subcutaneous implants of Alzet osmotic minipumps for 14 days. Some groups were also given the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and/or the D2 antagonist raclopride for this same time period. DA receptor binding techniques were used 24 hours post‐EEDQ injection (Day 15, 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in order to examine changes in D1 and D2 receptor densities in the striatum. Half of the rats were killed in the day with the other half killed at night in order to examine day/night differences in the effects of cocaine treatment. Results showed that chronic cocaine increased the protection of D1 receptors from EEDQ inactivation in a dosedependent fashion during the day, and decreased D1 protection from EEDQ at night. Since EEDQ has a low affinity for the DA receptor relative to endogenous DA or the exogenous ligands in this study, only receptors that are vacant are inactivated thereby allowing for an estimate of DA receptor occupation in vivo. Cocaine can therefore be said to increase D1 receptor occupation by DA in vivo during the day and decrease it at night. Coadministration of the DA antagonists eliminated this cocaine‐induced day/night difference and, in the case of the D1 antagonist, produced opposite D1 receptor effects when administered alone. Chronic SCH 23390 treatment protected D1 receptors from EEDQ denaturation while D2 receptors were protected by chronic raclopride. In addition, raclopride was found to affect the affinity of both the D1 and the D2 receptors to the [3H]SCH 23390 and [3H] spiperone ligands, respectively. Since no day/night differences were found in D2 receptor density with respect to chronic cocaine treatment these findings have implications for a phasic D1/tonic D2 receptor hypothesis such that cocaine treatment selectively alters the level of DA at sites containing D1 receptors with differential effects depending on the day/night cycle. © 1993 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.