Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension: Mendelian randomization study

Ming Ding, Tao Huang, Helle K. M. Bergholdt, Borge G. Nordestgaard, Christina Ellervik, Lu Qi, Alexis C. Frazier-Wood, Stella Aslibekyan, Kari E. North, Trudy Voortman, Mariaelisa Graff, Caren E. Smith, Chao-Qiang Lai, Anette Varbo, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Ester A. L. de Jonge, Frederic Fumeron, Dolores Corella, Carol A. Wang, Anne TjonnelandKim Overvad, Thorkild I. A. Sorensen, Mary F. Feitosa, Mary K. Wojczynski, Mika Kahonen, Shafqat Ahmad, Frida Renstrom, Bruce M. Psaty, David S. Siscovick, Ines Barroso, Ingegerd Johansson, Dena Hernandez, Luigi Ferrucci, Stefania Bandinelli, Allan Linneberg, Camilla Helene Sandholt, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Christina-Alexandra Schulz, Emily Sonestedt, Marju Orho-Melander, Tzu-An Chen, Jerome I. Rotter, Mathew A. Allison, Stephen S. Rich, Jose V. Sorli, Oscar Coltell, Craig E. Pennell, Peter R. Eastwood, Albert Hofman, Andre G. Uitterlinden, MCarola Zillikens, Frank J. A. van Rooij, Audrey Y. Chu, Lynda M. Rose, Paul M. Ridker, Jorma Viikari, Olli Raitakari, Terho Lehtimaki, Vera Mikkila, Walter C. Willett, Yujie Wang, Katherine L. Tucker, Jose M. Ordovas, Tuomas O. Kilpelainen, Michael A. Province, Paul W. Franks, Donna K. Arnett, Toshiko Tanaka, Ulla Toft, Ulrika Ericso, Oscar H. Franco, Dariush Mozaffarian, Frank B. Hu, Daniel I. Chasman, CHARGE consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal.


Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable.


CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium.


Data from 22 studies with 171 213 participants, and an additional 10 published prospective studies with 26 119 participants included in the observational analysis.


The instrumental variable estimation was conducted using the ratio of coefficients approach. Using metaanalysis, an additional eight published randomized clinical trials on the association of dairy consumption with systolic blood pressure were summarized.


Compared with the CC genotype (CC is associated with complete lactase deficiency), the CT/TT genotype (TT is associated with lactose persistence, and CT is associated with certain lactase deficiency) of LCT-13910 (lactase persistence gene) rs4988235 was associated with higher dairy consumption (0.23 (about 55 g/day), 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.29) serving/day; P


The weak inverse association between dairy intake and systolic blood pressure in observational studies was not supported by a comprehensive instrumental variable analysis and systematic review of existing clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1000
Number of pages10
JournalBritish Medical Journal Open Access (Online )
Publication statusPublished - 16 Mar 2017


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