Dairy Consumption and Body Mass Index Among Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis of 184802 Individuals from 25 Studies

Tao Huang, Ming Ding, Helle K. M. Bergholdt, Tiange Wang, Yoriko Heianza, Dian-jianyi Sun, Alexis C. Frazier-Wood, Stella Aslibekyan, Kari E. North, Trudy Voortman, Mariaelisa Graff, Caren E. Smith, Chao-Qiang Lai, Anette Varbo, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, M. Ester A. L. de Jonge, Fredric Fumeron, Dolores Corella, Carol A. Wang, Anne TjonnelandKim Overvad, Thorkild I. A. Sorensen, Mary F. Feitosa, Mary K. Wojczynski, Mika Kahonen, Frida Renstrom, Bruce M. Psaty, David S. Siscovick, Ines Barroso, Ingegerd Johansson, Dena Hernandez, Luigi Ferrucci, Stefania Bandinelli, Allan Linneberg, M. Carola Zillikens, Camilla Helene Sandholt, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Christina-Alexandra Schulz, Emily Sonestedt, Marju Orho-Melander, Tzu-An Chen, Jerome I. Rotter, Mathew A. Allison, Stephen S. Rich, Jose V. Sorli, Oscar Coltell, Craig E. Pennell, Peter Eastwood, Albert Hofman, Andre G. Uitterlinden, Frank J. A. van Rooij, Audrey Y. Chu, Lynda M. Rose, Paul M. Ridker, Jorma Viikari, Olli Raitakari, Terho Lehtimaki, Vera Mikkila, Walter C. Willett, Yujie Wang, Katherine L. Tucker, Jose M. Ordovas, Tuomas O. Kilpelainen, Michael A. Province, Paul W. Franks, Donna K. Arnett, Toshiko Tanaka, Ulla Toft, Ulrika Ericson, Oscar H. Franco, Dariush Mozaffarian, Frank B. Hu, Daniel I. Chasman, Borge G. Nordestgaard, Christina Ellervik, Lu Qi, Mendelian Randomization Dairy Cons

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28 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Associations between dairy intake and body mass index (BMI) have been inconsistently observed in epidemiological studies, and the causal relationship remains ill defined.

METHODS: We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using an established dairy intake-associated genetic polymorphism located upstream of the lactase gene (LCT-13910 C/T, rs4988235) as an instrumental variable (IV). Linear regression models were fitted to analyze associations between (a) dairy intake and BMI, (b) rs4988235 and dairy intake, and (c) rs4988235 and BMI in each study. The causal effect of dairy intake on BMI was quantified by IV estimators among 184802 participants from 25 studies.

RESULTS: Higher dairy intake was associated with higher BMI (beta = 0.03 kg/m(2) per serving/day; 95% CI, 0.00-0.06; P = 0.04), whereas the LCT genotype with 1 or 2 T allele was significantly associated with 0.20 (95% CI, 0.14-0.25) serving/day higher dairy intake (P = 3.15 x 10(-12)) and 0.12 (95% CI, 0.06-0.17) kg/m(2) higher BMI (P = 2.11 x 10(-5)). MR analysis showed that the genetically determined higher dairy intake was significantly associated with higher BMI (beta = 0.60 kg/m(2) per serving/day; 95% CI, 0.27-0.92; P = 3.0 x 10(-4)).

CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides strong evidence to support a causal effect of higher dairy intake on increased BMI among adults. (c) 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-191
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Chemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018


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