Cytokine-induced SOCS expression is inhibited by cAMP analogue: Impact on regeneration in injured retina

K. Park, Y. Hu, Jillian Muhling, Margaret Pollett, E.J. Dallimore, A.M. Turnley, Q. Cui, Alan Harvey

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    69 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Injured adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) regrow axons into peripheral nerve (PN) grafted onto cut optic nerve. Survival and regeneration of RGCs is increased by intraocular injections of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and axonal regeneration is further enhanced by co-injection of a cyclic AMP analogue (CPT-cAMP). Based on these data, and because cytokine signaling is negatively regulated by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, we set out to determine whether CNTF injections increase retinal SOCS expression and whether any changes are attenuated by co-injection with CPT-cAMP. Using quantitative PCR we found increased SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3 mRNA levels at various times after a single CNTF injection. Expression remained high for many days. SOCS protein levels were also increased. In situ hybridization revealed that RGCs express SOCS3 mRNA, and SOCS expression in cultured RGCs was increased by CNTF. Co-injection of CPT-cAMP reduced CNTF induced expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 mRNA and decreased SOCS3 protein expression. CNTF injection also transiently increased retinal leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expression, an effect that was also moderated by CPT-cAMP. We propose that, along with known reparative effects of elevated cAMP on neurons, reducing SOCS upregulation may be an additional way in which cyclic nucleotides augment cytokine-induced regenerative responses in the injured CNS.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)313-324
    JournalMolecular and Cellular Neuroscience
    Volume41
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2009

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