Purpose: To report the pathogenic factors that account for cystoid macular edema and cystoid macular degeneration in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods: The clinical course and multimodal imaging findings, including fundus color photography, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography, of one eye with cystoid macular edema due to chronic CSC was documented. Results: A 44-year old woman with a history of chronic CSC presented with progressive visual decline in the right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40. Funduscopic examination revealed diffuse retinal pigment epithelial changes and macular edema. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated perifoveal microaneurysms and leakage in a petaloid configuration. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated cysts at the level of the inner nuclear layer, an epiretinal membrane, vitreomacular traction, and an attenuated retinal pigment epithelial band. Central subfield thickness was 486 μm. Three intravitreal injections of aflibercept were administered over 16 weeks following which there was resolution of leakage, release of vitreomacular traction, and resolution of microaneurysms. Central subfield thickness reduced to 379 μm, but persistent intraretinal cysts were observed. There was subjective improvement in visual symptoms, but Snellen acuity remained at 20/40. Conclusion: Intraretinal cystic changes in chronic CSC may be the result of multifactorial pathogenic factors and may represent the coexistence of cystoid macular edema and cystoid macular degeneration. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor may play an important role in the treatment of cystoid macular edema caused by CSC.