Cylindrospermopsin genotoxicity and cytotoxicity: Role of cytochrome P-450 and oxidative stress

A.R. Humpage, F. Fontaine, S. Froscio, Philip Burcham, I.E. Falconer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    133 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin found in drinking-water sources world wide. It was the likely cause of human poisonings in Australia and possibly Brazil. Although CYN itself is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, its acute toxicity appears to be mediated by cytochrome p-450 (CYP450)-generated metabolites. CYN also induces genotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo, and preliminary evidence suggests that tumors are generated by oral exposure to CYN. To understand the role of CYP450-activated CYN metabolites on in vitro genotoxicity, this study quantified the process in primary mouse hepatocytes using the COMET assay in both the presence and absence of CYP450 inhibitors known to block acute CYN cytotoxicity. CYN was cytotoxic at concentrations above 0.1 μM(EC50 = 0.5 μM) but produced significant increases in Comet tail length, area, and tail moment at 0.05 μM and above; hence genotoxicity is unlikely to be secondary to metabolic disruption due to toxicity. The CYP450 inhibitors omeprazole (100 μM) and SKF525A (50 μM) completely inhibited the genotoxicity induced by CYN. The toxin also inhibits production of glutathione (GSH), a finding confirmed in this study. This could potentiate cytotoxicity, and by implication genotoxicity, via reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching. The lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA) was quantified in CYN-treated cells, and the effect of the reduced glutathione (GSSG) reductase (GSSG-rd.) inhibitor 1,3-bis(chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea (BCNU) on both MDA production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was examined. MDA levels were not elevated by CYN treatment, and block of GSH regeneration by BCNU did not affect lipid peroxidation or cytotoxicity. It therefore seems likely that CYP450-derived metabolites are responsible for both the acute cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by CYN.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)739-753
    JournalJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A: Current Issues
    Volume68
    Issue number9
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2005

    Fingerprint

    Oxidative stress
    Cytotoxicity
    Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
    Oxidative Stress
    Cytochromes
    Metabolites
    Malondialdehyde
    Carmustine
    Lipid Peroxidation
    Glutathione
    Toxicity
    Tail
    cylindrospermopsin
    Lipids
    Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
    Omeprazole
    Glutathione Disulfide
    Glutathione Reductase
    L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
    Drinking Water

    Cite this

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    title = "Cylindrospermopsin genotoxicity and cytotoxicity: Role of cytochrome P-450 and oxidative stress",
    abstract = "Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin found in drinking-water sources world wide. It was the likely cause of human poisonings in Australia and possibly Brazil. Although CYN itself is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, its acute toxicity appears to be mediated by cytochrome p-450 (CYP450)-generated metabolites. CYN also induces genotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo, and preliminary evidence suggests that tumors are generated by oral exposure to CYN. To understand the role of CYP450-activated CYN metabolites on in vitro genotoxicity, this study quantified the process in primary mouse hepatocytes using the COMET assay in both the presence and absence of CYP450 inhibitors known to block acute CYN cytotoxicity. CYN was cytotoxic at concentrations above 0.1 μM(EC50 = 0.5 μM) but produced significant increases in Comet tail length, area, and tail moment at 0.05 μM and above; hence genotoxicity is unlikely to be secondary to metabolic disruption due to toxicity. The CYP450 inhibitors omeprazole (100 μM) and SKF525A (50 μM) completely inhibited the genotoxicity induced by CYN. The toxin also inhibits production of glutathione (GSH), a finding confirmed in this study. This could potentiate cytotoxicity, and by implication genotoxicity, via reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching. The lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA) was quantified in CYN-treated cells, and the effect of the reduced glutathione (GSSG) reductase (GSSG-rd.) inhibitor 1,3-bis(chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea (BCNU) on both MDA production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was examined. MDA levels were not elevated by CYN treatment, and block of GSH regeneration by BCNU did not affect lipid peroxidation or cytotoxicity. It therefore seems likely that CYP450-derived metabolites are responsible for both the acute cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by CYN.",
    author = "A.R. Humpage and F. Fontaine and S. Froscio and Philip Burcham and I.E. Falconer",
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    Cylindrospermopsin genotoxicity and cytotoxicity: Role of cytochrome P-450 and oxidative stress. / Humpage, A.R.; Fontaine, F.; Froscio, S.; Burcham, Philip; Falconer, I.E.

    In: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A: Current Issues, Vol. 68, No. 9, 2005, p. 739-753.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Cylindrospermopsin genotoxicity and cytotoxicity: Role of cytochrome P-450 and oxidative stress

    AU - Humpage, A.R.

    AU - Fontaine, F.

    AU - Froscio, S.

    AU - Burcham, Philip

    AU - Falconer, I.E.

    PY - 2005

    Y1 - 2005

    N2 - Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin found in drinking-water sources world wide. It was the likely cause of human poisonings in Australia and possibly Brazil. Although CYN itself is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, its acute toxicity appears to be mediated by cytochrome p-450 (CYP450)-generated metabolites. CYN also induces genotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo, and preliminary evidence suggests that tumors are generated by oral exposure to CYN. To understand the role of CYP450-activated CYN metabolites on in vitro genotoxicity, this study quantified the process in primary mouse hepatocytes using the COMET assay in both the presence and absence of CYP450 inhibitors known to block acute CYN cytotoxicity. CYN was cytotoxic at concentrations above 0.1 μM(EC50 = 0.5 μM) but produced significant increases in Comet tail length, area, and tail moment at 0.05 μM and above; hence genotoxicity is unlikely to be secondary to metabolic disruption due to toxicity. The CYP450 inhibitors omeprazole (100 μM) and SKF525A (50 μM) completely inhibited the genotoxicity induced by CYN. The toxin also inhibits production of glutathione (GSH), a finding confirmed in this study. This could potentiate cytotoxicity, and by implication genotoxicity, via reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching. The lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA) was quantified in CYN-treated cells, and the effect of the reduced glutathione (GSSG) reductase (GSSG-rd.) inhibitor 1,3-bis(chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea (BCNU) on both MDA production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was examined. MDA levels were not elevated by CYN treatment, and block of GSH regeneration by BCNU did not affect lipid peroxidation or cytotoxicity. It therefore seems likely that CYP450-derived metabolites are responsible for both the acute cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by CYN.

    AB - Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin found in drinking-water sources world wide. It was the likely cause of human poisonings in Australia and possibly Brazil. Although CYN itself is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, its acute toxicity appears to be mediated by cytochrome p-450 (CYP450)-generated metabolites. CYN also induces genotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo, and preliminary evidence suggests that tumors are generated by oral exposure to CYN. To understand the role of CYP450-activated CYN metabolites on in vitro genotoxicity, this study quantified the process in primary mouse hepatocytes using the COMET assay in both the presence and absence of CYP450 inhibitors known to block acute CYN cytotoxicity. CYN was cytotoxic at concentrations above 0.1 μM(EC50 = 0.5 μM) but produced significant increases in Comet tail length, area, and tail moment at 0.05 μM and above; hence genotoxicity is unlikely to be secondary to metabolic disruption due to toxicity. The CYP450 inhibitors omeprazole (100 μM) and SKF525A (50 μM) completely inhibited the genotoxicity induced by CYN. The toxin also inhibits production of glutathione (GSH), a finding confirmed in this study. This could potentiate cytotoxicity, and by implication genotoxicity, via reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching. The lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA) was quantified in CYN-treated cells, and the effect of the reduced glutathione (GSSG) reductase (GSSG-rd.) inhibitor 1,3-bis(chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea (BCNU) on both MDA production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was examined. MDA levels were not elevated by CYN treatment, and block of GSH regeneration by BCNU did not affect lipid peroxidation or cytotoxicity. It therefore seems likely that CYP450-derived metabolites are responsible for both the acute cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by CYN.

    U2 - 10.1080/15287390590925465

    DO - 10.1080/15287390590925465

    M3 - Article

    VL - 68

    SP - 739

    EP - 753

    JO - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A: Current Issues

    JF - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A: Current Issues

    SN - 1087-2620

    IS - 9

    ER -