Current understanding of the neutrophil transcriptome in health and disease

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Neutrophils are key cells of the innate immune system. It is now understood that this leukocyte population is diverse in both the basal composition and functional plasticity. Underlying this plasticity is a post-translational framework for rapidly achieving early activation states, but also a transcriptional capacity that is becoming increasingly recognized by immunologists. Growing interest in the contribution of neutrophils to health and disease has resulted in more efforts to describe their transcriptional activity. Whilst initial efforts focused predominantly on understanding the existing biology, investigations with advanced methods such as single cell RNA sequencing to understand interactions of the entire immune system are revealing higher flexibility in neutrophil transcription than previously thought possible and multiple transition states. It is now apparent that neutrophils utilise many forms of RNA in the regulation of their function. This review collates current knowledge on the nuclei structure and gene expression activity of human neutrophils across homeostasis and disease, before highlighting knowledge gaps that are research priority areas.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2406
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


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