Current practice and research directions in hydrodynamics for FLNG-side-by-side offloading

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The offloading of LNG from a ship-shaped FLNG facility to a carrier in a side-by-side configuration in the open sea is a new operation in the offshore industry. Its novelty means that there is limited guidance available for potential FLNG operators when undertaking operability assessments. The criteria for design of side-by-side offloading operations at sea are reviewed, largely based on the pioneering work by Shell. Whilst many advances have been made, several areas of uncertainty remain, particularly associated with the underlying complex non-linear hydrodynamics. To this end, a review of the relevant hydrodynamics associated with side-by-side offloading is presented. Within this scope, the key factors that are likely to play an important role in determining side-by-side offloading operability include roll motions of LNG carriers, liquid cargo sloshing and free surface motions in the gap between vessels. Each of these phenomena can exhibit resonance, with the response amplitude of roll motions, sloshing and free surface motions in the gap being sensitive to damping levels and excitation frequencies. To explore the present understanding of the hydrodynamic excitation and damped response of these phenomena, recent developments have been reviewed and critiqued; these encompass numerical simulations, physical model tests and full scale measurements. Recommendations for future work directions to expand the current understanding and address shortcomings are also provided. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99–110
JournalOcean Engineering
Volume158
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

Liquid sloshing
Hydrodynamics
Liquefied natural gas
Ships
Damping
Computer simulation
Liquids
Floating liquefied natural gas
Industry
Uncertainty

Cite this

@article{3016508136a848f691546025231c08ca,
title = "Current practice and research directions in hydrodynamics for FLNG-side-by-side offloading",
abstract = "The offloading of LNG from a ship-shaped FLNG facility to a carrier in a side-by-side configuration in the open sea is a new operation in the offshore industry. Its novelty means that there is limited guidance available for potential FLNG operators when undertaking operability assessments. The criteria for design of side-by-side offloading operations at sea are reviewed, largely based on the pioneering work by Shell. Whilst many advances have been made, several areas of uncertainty remain, particularly associated with the underlying complex non-linear hydrodynamics. To this end, a review of the relevant hydrodynamics associated with side-by-side offloading is presented. Within this scope, the key factors that are likely to play an important role in determining side-by-side offloading operability include roll motions of LNG carriers, liquid cargo sloshing and free surface motions in the gap between vessels. Each of these phenomena can exhibit resonance, with the response amplitude of roll motions, sloshing and free surface motions in the gap being sensitive to damping levels and excitation frequencies. To explore the present understanding of the hydrodynamic excitation and damped response of these phenomena, recent developments have been reviewed and critiqued; these encompass numerical simulations, physical model tests and full scale measurements. Recommendations for future work directions to expand the current understanding and address shortcomings are also provided. {\circledC} 2018 Elsevier Ltd",
author = "Wenhua Zhao and Milne, {Ian Angus} and Michalakis Efthymiou and Wolgamot, {Hugh Alwyn} and Scott Draper and Paul Taylor and {Eatock Taylor}, {William Rodney}",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.03.076",
language = "English",
volume = "158",
pages = "99–110",
journal = "Ocean Engineering",
issn = "0029-8018",
publisher = "Pergamon",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Current practice and research directions in hydrodynamics for FLNG-side-by-side offloading

AU - Zhao, Wenhua

AU - Milne, Ian Angus

AU - Efthymiou, Michalakis

AU - Wolgamot, Hugh Alwyn

AU - Draper, Scott

AU - Taylor, Paul

AU - Eatock Taylor, William Rodney

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - The offloading of LNG from a ship-shaped FLNG facility to a carrier in a side-by-side configuration in the open sea is a new operation in the offshore industry. Its novelty means that there is limited guidance available for potential FLNG operators when undertaking operability assessments. The criteria for design of side-by-side offloading operations at sea are reviewed, largely based on the pioneering work by Shell. Whilst many advances have been made, several areas of uncertainty remain, particularly associated with the underlying complex non-linear hydrodynamics. To this end, a review of the relevant hydrodynamics associated with side-by-side offloading is presented. Within this scope, the key factors that are likely to play an important role in determining side-by-side offloading operability include roll motions of LNG carriers, liquid cargo sloshing and free surface motions in the gap between vessels. Each of these phenomena can exhibit resonance, with the response amplitude of roll motions, sloshing and free surface motions in the gap being sensitive to damping levels and excitation frequencies. To explore the present understanding of the hydrodynamic excitation and damped response of these phenomena, recent developments have been reviewed and critiqued; these encompass numerical simulations, physical model tests and full scale measurements. Recommendations for future work directions to expand the current understanding and address shortcomings are also provided. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

AB - The offloading of LNG from a ship-shaped FLNG facility to a carrier in a side-by-side configuration in the open sea is a new operation in the offshore industry. Its novelty means that there is limited guidance available for potential FLNG operators when undertaking operability assessments. The criteria for design of side-by-side offloading operations at sea are reviewed, largely based on the pioneering work by Shell. Whilst many advances have been made, several areas of uncertainty remain, particularly associated with the underlying complex non-linear hydrodynamics. To this end, a review of the relevant hydrodynamics associated with side-by-side offloading is presented. Within this scope, the key factors that are likely to play an important role in determining side-by-side offloading operability include roll motions of LNG carriers, liquid cargo sloshing and free surface motions in the gap between vessels. Each of these phenomena can exhibit resonance, with the response amplitude of roll motions, sloshing and free surface motions in the gap being sensitive to damping levels and excitation frequencies. To explore the present understanding of the hydrodynamic excitation and damped response of these phenomena, recent developments have been reviewed and critiqued; these encompass numerical simulations, physical model tests and full scale measurements. Recommendations for future work directions to expand the current understanding and address shortcomings are also provided. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85044964398&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.03.076

DO - 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.03.076

M3 - Review article

VL - 158

SP - 99

EP - 110

JO - Ocean Engineering

JF - Ocean Engineering

SN - 0029-8018

ER -