Steroids are used outside the realm of competitive athletics in Australia among a wide variety of groups with different motivations and goals. This paper provides an overview of the reasons for use; rates of usage; physical and psychological side effects; and sources of steroids. Issues associated with injecting steroids; their current legal status; and drug education and prevention programmes are reviewed briefly. Research involving identified sub-populations is needed to determine user profiles and prevalence rates of users and potential users. Studies of Australian users are also needed to obtain baseline information on areas of potential harm associated with steroids use, e.g. aggressive behaviour, needle-sharing behaviour, physical side effects and potential for dependency. It is concluded that future deterrence strategies should focus more on demand reduction, rather than supply.