Cryptococcosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Is Associated With Dysregulation of IL-7/IL-7 Receptor Signaling Pathway in T Cells and Monocyte Activation

Ngomu Akeem Akilimali, Daniel M. Muema, Charles Specht, Christina C. Chang, Mahomed Yunus S. Moosa, Stuart M. Levitz, Sharon R. Lewin, Martyn A. French, Thumbi Ndungʼu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Systemic levels of interleukin (IL)-7 at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation have previously been shown to be predictive of HIV-linked paradoxical cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS). We therefore explored IL-7/IL-7 receptor (IL-7/IL-7R) signaling pathway dysfunction, with related alterations in immune function, as a mechanism underlying C-IRIS. METHOD: HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis who experienced C-IRIS (n = 27) were compared with CD4 T-cell count-matched counterparts without C-IRIS (n = 27), after antifungal therapy and pre-ART initiation. Flow cytometry was used to assess T-cell and monocyte phenotypes and functions. RESULTS: Proportions of IL-7R+ CD4 or CD8 T cells correlated positively with CD4 T-cell counts and proportions of central memory and naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell pre-ART (all r > 0.50 and P < 0.05); however, the former negatively correlated with CD4 T-cell counts fold-increase on ART in non-C-IRIS but not C-IRIS patients. Higher frequencies of activated monocytes (CD14CD86 or CD14+HLA-DR+; P ≤ 0.038) were also observed in C-IRIS compared with non-C-IRIS patients, and those who failed to clear cryptococci from cerebrospinal fluid before ART had higher levels of activated monocytes (CD14+HLA-DR+, P = 0.017) compared with those who cleared. In multivariate regression, CD14+HLA-DR+ monocytes were independently associated with C-IRIS [hazard ratio = 1.055 (1.013-1.098); P = 0.009]. CONCLUSION: In contrast to non-C-IRIS patients, C-IRIS patients displayed a lack of association between proportions of IL-7R+ T cells and several markers of T-cell homeostasis. They also exhibited higher monocyte activation linked to cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal culture positivity before ART. These data suggest a role for IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway dysregulation in the pathogenesis of C-IRIS, possibly linked to monocyte activation and residual pathogen burden before ART.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)596-604
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
Volume80
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2019

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Interleukin-7 Receptors
Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
Cryptococcosis
Interleukin-7
Monocytes
T-Lymphocytes
Interleukins
HLA-DR Antigens
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Therapeutics
Cerebrospinal Fluid
HIV
Cryptococcal Meningitis
Cryptococcus

Cite this

Akilimali, Ngomu Akeem ; Muema, Daniel M. ; Specht, Charles ; Chang, Christina C. ; Moosa, Mahomed Yunus S. ; Levitz, Stuart M. ; Lewin, Sharon R. ; French, Martyn A. ; Ndungʼu, Thumbi. / Cryptococcosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Is Associated With Dysregulation of IL-7/IL-7 Receptor Signaling Pathway in T Cells and Monocyte Activation. In: Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2019 ; Vol. 80, No. 5. pp. 596-604.
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title = "Cryptococcosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Is Associated With Dysregulation of IL-7/IL-7 Receptor Signaling Pathway in T Cells and Monocyte Activation",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Systemic levels of interleukin (IL)-7 at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation have previously been shown to be predictive of HIV-linked paradoxical cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS). We therefore explored IL-7/IL-7 receptor (IL-7/IL-7R) signaling pathway dysfunction, with related alterations in immune function, as a mechanism underlying C-IRIS. METHOD: HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis who experienced C-IRIS (n = 27) were compared with CD4 T-cell count-matched counterparts without C-IRIS (n = 27), after antifungal therapy and pre-ART initiation. Flow cytometry was used to assess T-cell and monocyte phenotypes and functions. RESULTS: Proportions of IL-7R+ CD4 or CD8 T cells correlated positively with CD4 T-cell counts and proportions of central memory and naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell pre-ART (all r > 0.50 and P < 0.05); however, the former negatively correlated with CD4 T-cell counts fold-increase on ART in non-C-IRIS but not C-IRIS patients. Higher frequencies of activated monocytes (CD14CD86 or CD14+HLA-DR+; P ≤ 0.038) were also observed in C-IRIS compared with non-C-IRIS patients, and those who failed to clear cryptococci from cerebrospinal fluid before ART had higher levels of activated monocytes (CD14+HLA-DR+, P = 0.017) compared with those who cleared. In multivariate regression, CD14+HLA-DR+ monocytes were independently associated with C-IRIS [hazard ratio = 1.055 (1.013-1.098); P = 0.009]. CONCLUSION: In contrast to non-C-IRIS patients, C-IRIS patients displayed a lack of association between proportions of IL-7R+ T cells and several markers of T-cell homeostasis. They also exhibited higher monocyte activation linked to cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal culture positivity before ART. These data suggest a role for IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway dysregulation in the pathogenesis of C-IRIS, possibly linked to monocyte activation and residual pathogen burden before ART.",
author = "Akilimali, {Ngomu Akeem} and Muema, {Daniel M.} and Charles Specht and Chang, {Christina C.} and Moosa, {Mahomed Yunus S.} and Levitz, {Stuart M.} and Lewin, {Sharon R.} and French, {Martyn A.} and Thumbi Ndungʼu",
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Cryptococcosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Is Associated With Dysregulation of IL-7/IL-7 Receptor Signaling Pathway in T Cells and Monocyte Activation. / Akilimali, Ngomu Akeem; Muema, Daniel M.; Specht, Charles; Chang, Christina C.; Moosa, Mahomed Yunus S.; Levitz, Stuart M.; Lewin, Sharon R.; French, Martyn A.; Ndungʼu, Thumbi.

In: Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), Vol. 80, No. 5, 15.04.2019, p. 596-604.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cryptococcosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Is Associated With Dysregulation of IL-7/IL-7 Receptor Signaling Pathway in T Cells and Monocyte Activation

AU - Akilimali, Ngomu Akeem

AU - Muema, Daniel M.

AU - Specht, Charles

AU - Chang, Christina C.

AU - Moosa, Mahomed Yunus S.

AU - Levitz, Stuart M.

AU - Lewin, Sharon R.

AU - French, Martyn A.

AU - Ndungʼu, Thumbi

PY - 2019/4/15

Y1 - 2019/4/15

N2 - BACKGROUND: Systemic levels of interleukin (IL)-7 at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation have previously been shown to be predictive of HIV-linked paradoxical cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS). We therefore explored IL-7/IL-7 receptor (IL-7/IL-7R) signaling pathway dysfunction, with related alterations in immune function, as a mechanism underlying C-IRIS. METHOD: HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis who experienced C-IRIS (n = 27) were compared with CD4 T-cell count-matched counterparts without C-IRIS (n = 27), after antifungal therapy and pre-ART initiation. Flow cytometry was used to assess T-cell and monocyte phenotypes and functions. RESULTS: Proportions of IL-7R+ CD4 or CD8 T cells correlated positively with CD4 T-cell counts and proportions of central memory and naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell pre-ART (all r > 0.50 and P < 0.05); however, the former negatively correlated with CD4 T-cell counts fold-increase on ART in non-C-IRIS but not C-IRIS patients. Higher frequencies of activated monocytes (CD14CD86 or CD14+HLA-DR+; P ≤ 0.038) were also observed in C-IRIS compared with non-C-IRIS patients, and those who failed to clear cryptococci from cerebrospinal fluid before ART had higher levels of activated monocytes (CD14+HLA-DR+, P = 0.017) compared with those who cleared. In multivariate regression, CD14+HLA-DR+ monocytes were independently associated with C-IRIS [hazard ratio = 1.055 (1.013-1.098); P = 0.009]. CONCLUSION: In contrast to non-C-IRIS patients, C-IRIS patients displayed a lack of association between proportions of IL-7R+ T cells and several markers of T-cell homeostasis. They also exhibited higher monocyte activation linked to cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal culture positivity before ART. These data suggest a role for IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway dysregulation in the pathogenesis of C-IRIS, possibly linked to monocyte activation and residual pathogen burden before ART.

AB - BACKGROUND: Systemic levels of interleukin (IL)-7 at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation have previously been shown to be predictive of HIV-linked paradoxical cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS). We therefore explored IL-7/IL-7 receptor (IL-7/IL-7R) signaling pathway dysfunction, with related alterations in immune function, as a mechanism underlying C-IRIS. METHOD: HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis who experienced C-IRIS (n = 27) were compared with CD4 T-cell count-matched counterparts without C-IRIS (n = 27), after antifungal therapy and pre-ART initiation. Flow cytometry was used to assess T-cell and monocyte phenotypes and functions. RESULTS: Proportions of IL-7R+ CD4 or CD8 T cells correlated positively with CD4 T-cell counts and proportions of central memory and naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell pre-ART (all r > 0.50 and P < 0.05); however, the former negatively correlated with CD4 T-cell counts fold-increase on ART in non-C-IRIS but not C-IRIS patients. Higher frequencies of activated monocytes (CD14CD86 or CD14+HLA-DR+; P ≤ 0.038) were also observed in C-IRIS compared with non-C-IRIS patients, and those who failed to clear cryptococci from cerebrospinal fluid before ART had higher levels of activated monocytes (CD14+HLA-DR+, P = 0.017) compared with those who cleared. In multivariate regression, CD14+HLA-DR+ monocytes were independently associated with C-IRIS [hazard ratio = 1.055 (1.013-1.098); P = 0.009]. CONCLUSION: In contrast to non-C-IRIS patients, C-IRIS patients displayed a lack of association between proportions of IL-7R+ T cells and several markers of T-cell homeostasis. They also exhibited higher monocyte activation linked to cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal culture positivity before ART. These data suggest a role for IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway dysregulation in the pathogenesis of C-IRIS, possibly linked to monocyte activation and residual pathogen burden before ART.

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U2 - 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001946

DO - 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001946

M3 - Article

VL - 80

SP - 596

EP - 604

JO - Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology

JF - Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology

SN - 1525-4135

IS - 5

ER -