Cross-Situational Self-Consistency in Nine Cultures: The Importance of Separating Influences of Social Norms and Distinctive Dispositions

Kenneth D. Locke, A. Timothy Church, Khairul A. Mastor, Guy J. Curtis, Pamela Sadler, Kelly McDonald, José de Jesús Vargas-Flores, Joselina Ibáñez-Reyes, Hiroaki Morio, Jose Alberto S. Reyes, Helena F. Cabrera, Rina Mazuera Arias, Brigida Carolina Rincon, Neida Coromoto Albornoz Arias, Arturo Muñoz, Fernando A. Ortiz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We assessed self-consistency (expressing similar traits in different situations) by having undergraduates in the United States (n = 230), Australia (n = 220), Canada (n = 240), Ecuador (n = 101), Mexico (n = 209), Venezuela (n = 209), Japan (n = 178), Malaysia (n = 254), and the Philippines (n = 241) report the traits they expressed in four different social situations. Self-consistency was positively associated with age, well-being, living in Latin America, and not living in Japan; however, each of these variables showed a unique pattern of associations with various psychologically distinct sources of raw self-consistency, including cross-situationally consistent social norms and injunctions. For example, low consistency between injunctive norms and trait expressions fully explained the low self-consistency in Japan. In accord with trait theory, after removing normative and injunctive sources of consistency, there remained robust distinctive noninjunctive self-consistency (reflecting individuating personality dispositions) in every country, including Japan. The results highlight how clarifying the determinants and implications of self-consistency requires differentiating its distinctive, injunctive, and noninjunctive components.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1033-1049
Number of pages17
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Volume43
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes

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