Cross-sectional, case-control and longitudinal associations between exposure to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and the dispensing of antidepressants

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

AIM: To determine if the dispensing of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists is associated with increased dispensing of antidepressants.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used cross-sectional, case-control and retrospective cohort study designs to examine the association between dispensed GLP-1 receptor agonists and antidepressants between 2012 and 2022 in the 10% random sample of the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) data. PBS-listed GLP-1 receptor agonists, exenatide, dulaglutide and semaglutide were the exposures. Outcomes were the odds ratio [ORs; 99% confidence interval (CI)] and hazard ratio (99% CI) of being dispensed any antidepressant. Analyses were adjusted for demographic measures and the dispensing of medicines to manage cardiovascular diseases or anxiety/insomnia. Statistical tests were two-sided at the 1% level of significance.

RESULTS: In total, 358 075 of 1 746 391 individuals were dispensed antidepressants, and 8495 of the 24 783 dispensed a GLP-1 receptor agonist were also dispensed an antidepressant in 2022 (OR 1.44; 99% CI 1.38-1.50); 24 103 of the 1 746 391 participants had been dispensed a GLP-1 receptor agonist between 2012 and 2021, and of these 8083 were dispensed antidepressants in 2022 (OR 1.52; 99% CI 1.46-1.59). The 2012 cohort included 1 213 316 individuals who had not been dispensed antidepressants that year. The hazard ratio of being dispensed an antidepressant between 2013 and 2022 following the dispensing of a GLP-1 receptor agonist was 1.19 (99% CI 1.12-1.27). Additional analyses restricting the time of exposure confirmed these associations for all PBS-listed GLP-1 receptor agonists.

CONCLUSIONS: Individuals exposed to GLP-1 receptor agonists are at greater risk of being dispensed antidepressants. The possible impact of GLP-1 receptor agonists on the mood of consumers requires ongoing vigilance and further research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2925-2932
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Volume26
Issue number7
Early online date23 Apr 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Apr 2024

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Cross-sectional, case-control and longitudinal associations between exposure to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and the dispensing of antidepressants'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this