The herbicidally active aryloxyphenoxypropionates diclofop acid, haloxyfop acid, and fluazifop acid and the cyclohexanedione sethoxydim depolarized membranes in coleoptiles of eight biotypes of herbicide-susceptible and herbicide-resistant annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). Membrane polarity was reduced from -100 millivolts to -30 to -50 millivolts. Membranes repolarized after removal of the compounds only in biotypes with resistance to the compound added. Repolarization was not observed in herbicide-susceptible L. rigidum, nor was it observed in biotypes resistant to triazine, triazole, triazinone, phenylurea, or sulfonylurea herbicides but not resistant to aryloxyphenoxypropionates and cyclohexanediones. Chlorsulfuron, a sulfonylurea herbicide, at a saturating concentration of 1 micromolar, reduced membrane polarity in all biotypes studied by only 15 millivolts. The recovery of membrane potential following the removal of chlorsulfuron was restricted to chlorsulfuron-susceptible and -resistant biotypes that did not exhibit diclofop resistance. These differences in membrane responses are correlated with resistance to dicloflop rather than with resistance to chlorsulfuron. It is suggested that the differences may reflect altered membrane properties of diclofop-resistant biotypes. Further circumstantial evidence for dissimilarity of properties of membranes from diclofop-resistant and diclofop-susceptible ryegrass is provided by observations that K+/Na+ ratios were significantly higher in coleoptiles from diclofop-resistant biotypes than in coleoptiles from susceptible plants. Intact and excised roots from susceptible biotypes were capable of acidifying the external medium, whereas roots from resistant biotypes were unable to do so. The ineluctable conclusion is that in L. rigidum the phenomena of membrane repolarization and resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione herbicides are correlated.