Duplex or texture-contrast soils occur over about 60% of the agricultural areas of south-west Western Australia. Annual crops of wheat, barley, oats, and lupins predominate on these soils, grown in rotation with annual pastures. The climate is characterised by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Crop production is restricted to the winter and spring and is limited by waterlogging in the wet winter months and by water shortage during grain filling in spring. Research on crop production on duplex soils has been undertaken for the past 8 years by a collaborative team from the CSIRO Dryland Crops andyoils Program and the Western Australian Department of Agriculture. This research has been focussed on 3 sites at which processes limiting crop production on duplex soils have been highlighted. This special issue was initiated to summarise that research and to put it in its regional and national perspective. Additionally, opportunity was taken to compare and contrast experiences both within Western Australia and throughout Australia, and to draw out management options for crop production on duplex soils.