Discrete-element method (DEM) simulations of three-dimensional (3D) assemblies of ellipsoid particles were used to evaluate the critical state (CS) for both drained and undrained (constant volume) conditions. A series of conventional triaxial cyclic liquefaction tests with symmetrical cyclic deviatoric stress (σd) with initial q=0 kPa were simulated to develop a relationship between the cyclic stress ratio (CSR=σd/2σ0′) and the number of cycles required for initial liquefaction (NL), where σ0′ is the mean effective normal stress at the end of consolidation. Both cyclic mobility and instability type behaviors were observed depending on the initial void ratio (e0) and σ0′. The micromechanics quantities, i.e., the coordination number (CN), von Mises fabric (FvM), fabric anisotropy intensity (αc), and stress-strain behavior, suggested that cyclic mobility and instability may depend on the phase transformation and instability state, respectively. The cyclic resistance ratio (CRR15), i.e., CSR at NL=15, showed a unique relation with the initial state parameter (ψ0), irrespective of e0 and σ0′. Two series of postliquefaction monotonic simulations with and without reconsolidation exhibited a unique CS, which perfectly matched with the original CS line. The FvM also reached a unique, narrow range at the CS. The postliquefaction settlement during reconsolidation also showed a linear relation with ψ0.
|Journal||Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Feb 2021|