Correlation of carotid artery reactivity with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery vasodilator responses in asymptomatic, healthy volunteers

Anke C C M Van Mil, Yvonne Hartman, Frederieke Van Oorschot, Annemieke Heemels, Nikki Bax, Ellen A. Dawson, Nicola D. Hopkins, Maria T E Hopman, Daniel Green, David L. Oxborough, Dick H J Thijssen

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Abstract

Objectives: Carotid artery reactivity (CAR%), involving carotid artery diameter responses to a cold pressor test (CPT), is a noninvasive measure of conduit artery function in humans. This study examined the impact of age and cardiovascular risk factors on the CAR% and the relationship between CAR% and coronary artery vasodilator responses to the CPT. Methods: Ultrasound was used to measure resting and peak carotid artery diameters during the CPT, with CAR% being calculated as the relative change from baseline (%). We compared CAR% between young (n=50, 24±3 years) and older participants (n=44, 61±8 years), and subsequently assessed relationships between CAR% and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 50 participants (44±21 years). Subsequently, we compared left anterior descending (LAD) artery velocity (using transthoracic Doppler) with carotid artery diameter (i.e. CAR%) during the CPT (n=33, 37±17 years). Results: A significantly larger CAR% was found in young versus older healthy participants (4.1±3.7 versus 1.8±2.6, P<0.001). Participants without cardiovascular risk factors demonstrated a higher CAR% than those with at least two risk factors (2.9±2.9 versus 0.5±2.9, P=0.019). Carotid artery diameter and LAD velocity increased during CPT (P<0.001). Carotid diameter and change in velocity correlated with LAD velocity (r=0.486 and 0.402, P<0.004 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Older age and cardiovascular risk factors are related to lower CAR%, while CAR% shows good correlation with coronary artery responses to the CPT. Therefore, CAR% may represent a valuable technique to assess cardiovascular risk, while CAR% seems to reflect coronary artery vasodilator function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1026-1034
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Volume35
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017

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Vasodilator Agents
Carotid Arteries
Coronary Vessels
Healthy Volunteers
Arteries

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Van Mil, Anke C C M ; Hartman, Yvonne ; Van Oorschot, Frederieke ; Heemels, Annemieke ; Bax, Nikki ; Dawson, Ellen A. ; Hopkins, Nicola D. ; Hopman, Maria T E ; Green, Daniel ; Oxborough, David L. ; Thijssen, Dick H J. / Correlation of carotid artery reactivity with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery vasodilator responses in asymptomatic, healthy volunteers. In: Journal of Hypertension. 2017 ; Vol. 35, No. 5. pp. 1026-1034.
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title = "Correlation of carotid artery reactivity with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery vasodilator responses in asymptomatic, healthy volunteers",
abstract = "Objectives: Carotid artery reactivity (CAR{\%}), involving carotid artery diameter responses to a cold pressor test (CPT), is a noninvasive measure of conduit artery function in humans. This study examined the impact of age and cardiovascular risk factors on the CAR{\%} and the relationship between CAR{\%} and coronary artery vasodilator responses to the CPT. Methods: Ultrasound was used to measure resting and peak carotid artery diameters during the CPT, with CAR{\%} being calculated as the relative change from baseline ({\%}). We compared CAR{\%} between young (n=50, 24±3 years) and older participants (n=44, 61±8 years), and subsequently assessed relationships between CAR{\%} and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 50 participants (44±21 years). Subsequently, we compared left anterior descending (LAD) artery velocity (using transthoracic Doppler) with carotid artery diameter (i.e. CAR{\%}) during the CPT (n=33, 37±17 years). Results: A significantly larger CAR{\%} was found in young versus older healthy participants (4.1±3.7 versus 1.8±2.6, P<0.001). Participants without cardiovascular risk factors demonstrated a higher CAR{\%} than those with at least two risk factors (2.9±2.9 versus 0.5±2.9, P=0.019). Carotid artery diameter and LAD velocity increased during CPT (P<0.001). Carotid diameter and change in velocity correlated with LAD velocity (r=0.486 and 0.402, P<0.004 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Older age and cardiovascular risk factors are related to lower CAR{\%}, while CAR{\%} shows good correlation with coronary artery responses to the CPT. Therefore, CAR{\%} may represent a valuable technique to assess cardiovascular risk, while CAR{\%} seems to reflect coronary artery vasodilator function.",
keywords = "Cardiovascular risk, Carotid artery reactivity test, Cold pressor test, Coronary arteries, Endothelial function",
author = "{Van Mil}, {Anke C C M} and Yvonne Hartman and {Van Oorschot}, Frederieke and Annemieke Heemels and Nikki Bax and Dawson, {Ellen A.} and Hopkins, {Nicola D.} and Hopman, {Maria T E} and Daniel Green and Oxborough, {David L.} and Thijssen, {Dick H J}",
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Van Mil, ACCM, Hartman, Y, Van Oorschot, F, Heemels, A, Bax, N, Dawson, EA, Hopkins, ND, Hopman, MTE, Green, D, Oxborough, DL & Thijssen, DHJ 2017, 'Correlation of carotid artery reactivity with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery vasodilator responses in asymptomatic, healthy volunteers' Journal of Hypertension, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1026-1034. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001274

Correlation of carotid artery reactivity with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery vasodilator responses in asymptomatic, healthy volunteers. / Van Mil, Anke C C M; Hartman, Yvonne; Van Oorschot, Frederieke; Heemels, Annemieke; Bax, Nikki; Dawson, Ellen A.; Hopkins, Nicola D.; Hopman, Maria T E; Green, Daniel; Oxborough, David L.; Thijssen, Dick H J.

In: Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 35, No. 5, 01.05.2017, p. 1026-1034.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Correlation of carotid artery reactivity with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery vasodilator responses in asymptomatic, healthy volunteers

AU - Van Mil, Anke C C M

AU - Hartman, Yvonne

AU - Van Oorschot, Frederieke

AU - Heemels, Annemieke

AU - Bax, Nikki

AU - Dawson, Ellen A.

AU - Hopkins, Nicola D.

AU - Hopman, Maria T E

AU - Green, Daniel

AU - Oxborough, David L.

AU - Thijssen, Dick H J

PY - 2017/5/1

Y1 - 2017/5/1

N2 - Objectives: Carotid artery reactivity (CAR%), involving carotid artery diameter responses to a cold pressor test (CPT), is a noninvasive measure of conduit artery function in humans. This study examined the impact of age and cardiovascular risk factors on the CAR% and the relationship between CAR% and coronary artery vasodilator responses to the CPT. Methods: Ultrasound was used to measure resting and peak carotid artery diameters during the CPT, with CAR% being calculated as the relative change from baseline (%). We compared CAR% between young (n=50, 24±3 years) and older participants (n=44, 61±8 years), and subsequently assessed relationships between CAR% and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 50 participants (44±21 years). Subsequently, we compared left anterior descending (LAD) artery velocity (using transthoracic Doppler) with carotid artery diameter (i.e. CAR%) during the CPT (n=33, 37±17 years). Results: A significantly larger CAR% was found in young versus older healthy participants (4.1±3.7 versus 1.8±2.6, P<0.001). Participants without cardiovascular risk factors demonstrated a higher CAR% than those with at least two risk factors (2.9±2.9 versus 0.5±2.9, P=0.019). Carotid artery diameter and LAD velocity increased during CPT (P<0.001). Carotid diameter and change in velocity correlated with LAD velocity (r=0.486 and 0.402, P<0.004 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Older age and cardiovascular risk factors are related to lower CAR%, while CAR% shows good correlation with coronary artery responses to the CPT. Therefore, CAR% may represent a valuable technique to assess cardiovascular risk, while CAR% seems to reflect coronary artery vasodilator function.

AB - Objectives: Carotid artery reactivity (CAR%), involving carotid artery diameter responses to a cold pressor test (CPT), is a noninvasive measure of conduit artery function in humans. This study examined the impact of age and cardiovascular risk factors on the CAR% and the relationship between CAR% and coronary artery vasodilator responses to the CPT. Methods: Ultrasound was used to measure resting and peak carotid artery diameters during the CPT, with CAR% being calculated as the relative change from baseline (%). We compared CAR% between young (n=50, 24±3 years) and older participants (n=44, 61±8 years), and subsequently assessed relationships between CAR% and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 50 participants (44±21 years). Subsequently, we compared left anterior descending (LAD) artery velocity (using transthoracic Doppler) with carotid artery diameter (i.e. CAR%) during the CPT (n=33, 37±17 years). Results: A significantly larger CAR% was found in young versus older healthy participants (4.1±3.7 versus 1.8±2.6, P<0.001). Participants without cardiovascular risk factors demonstrated a higher CAR% than those with at least two risk factors (2.9±2.9 versus 0.5±2.9, P=0.019). Carotid artery diameter and LAD velocity increased during CPT (P<0.001). Carotid diameter and change in velocity correlated with LAD velocity (r=0.486 and 0.402, P<0.004 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Older age and cardiovascular risk factors are related to lower CAR%, while CAR% shows good correlation with coronary artery responses to the CPT. Therefore, CAR% may represent a valuable technique to assess cardiovascular risk, while CAR% seems to reflect coronary artery vasodilator function.

KW - Cardiovascular risk

KW - Carotid artery reactivity test

KW - Cold pressor test

KW - Coronary arteries

KW - Endothelial function

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U2 - 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001274

DO - 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001274

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SP - 1026

EP - 1034

JO - Journal of Hypertension.

JF - Journal of Hypertension.

SN - 0263-6352

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