Correlates of immunity to Group A Streptococcus: a pathway to vaccine development

Hannah Frost, Jean Louis Excler, Shiranee Sriskandan, Alma Fulurija

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Web of Science)


Understanding immunity in humans to Group A Streptococcus (Strep A) is critical for the development of successful vaccines to prevent the morbidity and mortality attributed to Strep A infections. Despite decades of effort, no licensed vaccine against Strep A exists and immune correlates of protection are lacking; a major impediment to vaccine development. In the absence of a vaccine, we can take cues from the development of natural immunity to Strep A in humans to identify immune correlates of protection. The age stratification of incidence of acute Strep A infections, peaking in young children and waning in early adulthood, coincides with the development of specific immune responses. Therefore, understanding the immune mechanisms involved in natural protection from acute Strep A infection is critical to identifying immune correlates to inform vaccine development. This perspective summarises the findings from natural infection studies, existing assays of immunity to Strep A, and highlights the gaps in knowledge to guide the development of Strep A vaccines and associated correlates of protection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1
Journalnpj Vaccines
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


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