Controls on iron(II) fluxes into waterways impacted by acid mine drainage: A DamkÖhler analysis of groundwater seepage and iron kinetics

Carolyn Oldham, Julia Beer, Christian Blodau, Jan Fleckenstein, Lydia Jones, Christianne Neumann, Stefan Peiffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

When acidic groundwater flows into an aquatic system the sediment water interface (SWI) acts as a transition zone between the groundwater and lake water, and often exhibits strong physical and biogeochemical gradients. The fate of groundwater-borne solutes, such as Fe(II), is determined by the balance between the exposure time during transport across the SWI and the reaction time within the SWI, however the relative role of groundwater seepage rates and iron kinetics on acidity generation in lakes is unknown. Porewater seepage velocities, porewater chemical profiles, and limnological data were collected across multiple field campaigns over the last two decades, in acid Mine Lake 77, in Lusatia, Germany. This rare data set was analyzed using a Damköhler approach that compares exposure and reactions timescales, to determine that Fe(II) would typically be transported with little reaction across the SWI, spatially separating it from sediment-processes that produce alkalinity and providing a source of acidity to the lake. This Damköhler analysis further showed that remediation should be focused on reducing groundwater seepage velocities and enhancing exposure times. Strategic planting of submerged benthic macroalgae would slow groundwater inflows, as well as oxygenating overlying waters and supplying organic matter to the sediments. A similar Damköhler analysis could be used to assess the fate of any groundwater-borne reactive chemicals (e.g. phosphorus) into lakes and streams.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-20
Number of pages10
JournalWater Research
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2019

Fingerprint

acid mine drainage
Seepage
Drainage
seepage
Groundwater
Sediments
Lakes
sediment-water interface
Iron
Fluxes
iron
kinetics
Kinetics
groundwater
Acids
Water
lake
Acidity
acidity
porewater

Cite this

Oldham, Carolyn ; Beer, Julia ; Blodau, Christian ; Fleckenstein, Jan ; Jones, Lydia ; Neumann, Christianne ; Peiffer, Stefan. / Controls on iron(II) fluxes into waterways impacted by acid mine drainage : A DamkÖhler analysis of groundwater seepage and iron kinetics. In: Water Research. 2019 ; pp. 11-20.
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Controls on iron(II) fluxes into waterways impacted by acid mine drainage : A DamkÖhler analysis of groundwater seepage and iron kinetics. / Oldham, Carolyn; Beer, Julia; Blodau, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jones, Lydia; Neumann, Christianne; Peiffer, Stefan.

In: Water Research, 15.04.2019, p. 11-20.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Controls on iron(II) fluxes into waterways impacted by acid mine drainage

T2 - A DamkÖhler analysis of groundwater seepage and iron kinetics

AU - Oldham, Carolyn

AU - Beer, Julia

AU - Blodau, Christian

AU - Fleckenstein, Jan

AU - Jones, Lydia

AU - Neumann, Christianne

AU - Peiffer, Stefan

PY - 2019/4/15

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N2 - When acidic groundwater flows into an aquatic system the sediment water interface (SWI) acts as a transition zone between the groundwater and lake water, and often exhibits strong physical and biogeochemical gradients. The fate of groundwater-borne solutes, such as Fe(II), is determined by the balance between the exposure time during transport across the SWI and the reaction time within the SWI, however the relative role of groundwater seepage rates and iron kinetics on acidity generation in lakes is unknown. Porewater seepage velocities, porewater chemical profiles, and limnological data were collected across multiple field campaigns over the last two decades, in acid Mine Lake 77, in Lusatia, Germany. This rare data set was analyzed using a Damköhler approach that compares exposure and reactions timescales, to determine that Fe(II) would typically be transported with little reaction across the SWI, spatially separating it from sediment-processes that produce alkalinity and providing a source of acidity to the lake. This Damköhler analysis further showed that remediation should be focused on reducing groundwater seepage velocities and enhancing exposure times. Strategic planting of submerged benthic macroalgae would slow groundwater inflows, as well as oxygenating overlying waters and supplying organic matter to the sediments. A similar Damköhler analysis could be used to assess the fate of any groundwater-borne reactive chemicals (e.g. phosphorus) into lakes and streams.

AB - When acidic groundwater flows into an aquatic system the sediment water interface (SWI) acts as a transition zone between the groundwater and lake water, and often exhibits strong physical and biogeochemical gradients. The fate of groundwater-borne solutes, such as Fe(II), is determined by the balance between the exposure time during transport across the SWI and the reaction time within the SWI, however the relative role of groundwater seepage rates and iron kinetics on acidity generation in lakes is unknown. Porewater seepage velocities, porewater chemical profiles, and limnological data were collected across multiple field campaigns over the last two decades, in acid Mine Lake 77, in Lusatia, Germany. This rare data set was analyzed using a Damköhler approach that compares exposure and reactions timescales, to determine that Fe(II) would typically be transported with little reaction across the SWI, spatially separating it from sediment-processes that produce alkalinity and providing a source of acidity to the lake. This Damköhler analysis further showed that remediation should be focused on reducing groundwater seepage velocities and enhancing exposure times. Strategic planting of submerged benthic macroalgae would slow groundwater inflows, as well as oxygenating overlying waters and supplying organic matter to the sediments. A similar Damköhler analysis could be used to assess the fate of any groundwater-borne reactive chemicals (e.g. phosphorus) into lakes and streams.

KW - Acidity generation

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KW - Reactive transport

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