Contaminant containment measures are often necessary to prevent or minimize offsite movement of contaminated materials for disposal or other purposes when they can be buried or left in place due to extensive subsurface contamination. These measures can include physical, chemical, and biological technologies such as impermeable and permeable barriers, stabilization and solidification, and phytostabilization. Contaminant containment is advantageous because it can stop contaminant plumes from migrating further and allow for pollutant reduction at sites where the source is inaccessible or cannot be removed. Moreover, unlike other options, contaminant containment measures do not require the excavation of contaminated substrates. However, contaminant containment measures require regular inspections to monitor for contaminant mobilization and migration. This review critically evaluates the sources of persistent contaminants, the different approaches to contaminant remediation, and the various physical-chemical-biological processes of contaminant containment. Additionally, the review provides case studies of contaminant containment operations under real or simulated field conditions. In summary, contaminant containment measures are essential for preventing further contamination and reducing risks to public health and the environment. While periodic monitoring is necessary, the benefits of contaminant containment make it a valuable remediation option when other methods are not feasible.