This paper analyses the factors influencing consumer-perceived risks of genetically modified (GM) food by using a structural equation model and survey data of urban residents in China. The sample is divided into the acquainted and unacquainted groups according to consumers' objective knowledge level. An integrated analytical framework is developed. The results show that consumers' positive attitude towards GM technology has a significant negative effect on consumer-perceived risks and that more information reaching consumers significantly reduces consumer-perceived risks of GM food only for the unacquainted group. Consumers' trust in government, biotechnology scientists, press media and food companies does not significantly influence consumer-perceived risks of GM food. This is likely because consumers have low trust in the abovementioned stakeholders of GM food. Consumers think that the information reaching them is limited and does not clearly show the advantages and disadvantages of GM food. Consumers’ objective knowledge of GM food is also limited. The health risks of GM food are of high concern for both consumer groups. These findings imply that the commercialization of GM crops in China is dependent on providing consumers with adequate and understandable information about GM food and strict supervision measures for food safety.