Background. Autosomal-dominant medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is an interstitial nephropathy characterized by structural renal tubular defects that result in salt wasting and a reduction in urinary concentration. The condition has clinical and morphological similarities to autosomal-recessive juvenile nephronophthisis. Two genes predisposing to MCKD have been localized. MCKD1 on chromosome 1q21 was localized in two Cypriot families, and MCKD2 on chromosome 16p12 was localized in a single Italian family. We have evaluated a large Welsh MCKD family for linkage at these two loci.Methods. Clinical data and DNA samples were collected from affected family members. Polymorphic microsatellite markers spanning the critical regions on chromosome 1 and chromosome 16 that encompass MCKD1 and MCKD2 were analyzed. Two-point and multipoint LOD scores were calculated.Results. The family fulfilled previously published criteria for the diagnosis of MCKD. but hyperuricemia and gout were not prominent features. Twenty-one affected individuals were identified. Mean age at death or end-stage renal disease was 47 years (37 to 60). Linkage and haplotype analysis generated strongly negative results at MCKD1 on chromosome 1q21 (two-point LOD score = -5.32). Strong evidence of linkage to MCKD2 was generated with a maximum multi-point LOD score of 3.75.Conclusion. These results provide the first independent confirmation of a gene predisposing to MCKD on chromosome 16p12 and indicate that mutation of this gene is not restricted to a single family or population. The absence of hyperuricemia and gout in our family indicates that these are not obligatory features of MCKD2 mutations.