Computed tomographic assessment of lung aeration at different positive end-expiratory pressures in a porcine model of intra-abdominal hypertension and lung injury

Adrian Regli, Siavash Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh, Gabrielle Christine Musk, David Joseph Reese, Peter Herrmann, Martin Joseph Firth, J. Jane Pillow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is common in critically ill patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. High positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) can reverse lung volume and oxygenation decline caused by IAH, but its impact on alveolar overdistension is less clear. We aimed to find a PEEP range that would be high enough to reduce atelectasis, while low enough to minimize alveolar overdistention in the presence of IAH and lung injury.

Methods: Five anesthetized pigs received standardized anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. Peritoneal insufflation of air was used to generate intra-abdominal pressure of 27 -cmH(2)O. Lung injury was created by intravenous oleic acid. PEEP levels of 5, 12, 17, 22, and 27 -cmH(2)O were applied. We performed computed tomography and measured arterial oxygen levels, respiratory mechanics, and cardiac output 5 min after each new PEEP level. The proportion of overdistended, normally aerated, poorly aerated, and non-aerated atelectatic lung tissue was calculated based on Hounsfield units.

Results: PEEP decreased the proportion of poorly aerated and atelectatic lung, while increasing normally aerated lung. Overdistension increased with each incremental increase in applied PEEP. "Best PEEP" (respiratory mechanics or oxygenation) was higher than the "optimal CT inflation PEEP range" (difference between lower inflection points of atelectatic and overdistended lung) in healthy and injured lungs.

Conclusions: Our findings in a large animal model suggest that titrating a PEEP to respiratory mechanics or oxygenation in the presence of IAH is associated with increased alveolar overdistension.

Original languageEnglish
Article number52
Number of pages14
JournalIntensive Care Medicine Experimental
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

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