Providing appropriate and responsive care to refugees from diverse backgrounds and with unique health needs is challenging. Refugee children may present with a wide range of conditions, which may be unfamiliar to health professionals in developed countries. Additionally, refugees may experience unfamiliarity with the Australian health system and distrust of authority figures and/or medical practitioners. This article provides an overview of the priority areas in health and health management for paediatric refugee patients for paediatricians as well as other relevant health care providers caring for this group. Specific issues covered include general health assessment, infectious diseases, immunization, growth and nutrition, oral health, development and disability, mental health and child protection. Comprehensive health assessment can assist in identifying children at risk of poor health and to provide them with timely and effective care, advocacy and appropriate referral.