Introduction: In-stent restenosis (ISR) is an unfavorable outcome that occurs in patients after coronary stenting. Use of drugs such as statins as well as drug-eluting stents has only been partially effective in reducing the rate of ISR. Since low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is a pivotal cardiovascular disease risk factor, this study aimed to evaluate the compositional and functional alterations of HDL in individuals with ISR.Material and methods: This case-control study included 21 ISR, 26 non-ISR (NISR), 16 angiography-negative, and 18 healthy subjects. Serum HDL2 (d: 1.063-1.125 g/ml) and HDL3 (d: 1.125-1.210 g/ml) subfractions were extracted from each subject using sequential ultracentrifugation. The capacity of HDL to efflux cellular cholesterol from lipid-loaded macrophages as well as to take up free cholesterol (FC) from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) during lipolysis was assessed.Results: No difference was found in the HDL2 and HDL3 content of free cholesterol and total protein among the groups. The NISR group showed lower triglyceride content in HDL2 and higher phospholipid content in HDL3 relative to healthy subjects. Strong positive correlations were found between the cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of HDL2 and its phospholipid content in the healthy (r = 0.50), angiography-negative (r = 0.55) and ISR (r = 0.52) groups. The capacity of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-depleted serum to take up free cholesterol was not different among the groups.Conclusions: Despite some compositional alterations, the capacity of HDL to efflux cholesterol from lipid-loaded macrophages as well as to take up free cholesterol from TGRLs during lipolysis was not associated with ISR in this study.