Comparison of the bolton standards to longitudinal cephalograms superimposed on the occipital condyle (I-point)

Richard Grant Standerwick, Eugene W. Roberts, James K. Hartsfield, William J. Babler, Thomas R. Katona

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


To compare traditional superimposition on sella turcica and the anterior cranial base (SACB) to superimposition referenced at the occipital condyle (I-point) for demonstrating craniofacial growth and development. Materials and methods: Tracings for ages 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 were chosen from the Bolton Standards of Dentofacial Developmental Growth to compare superimposition with the traditional longitudinal reference at SACB (anterior curvature of sella turcica and anterior cranial base) to reference at I-point on the antero-inferior contour of the occipital condyles in norma lateralis. The serial tracings were superimposed using both the sagittal and postero-anterior (PA) tracings. Incremental growth of landmarks was measured in relation to Cartesian coordinates and compared between the superimposition methods. Results: Sagittal and PA tracing superimpositions displayed an average 7 mm greater cephalad movement of landmarks, an average 2.4 mm greater ventral movement, and comparable transverse dimension with superimposition referenced at I-point as compared to the SACB reference. Conclusion: I-point superimposition demonstrates physiologic growth patterns concealed by traditional registration at sella turcica. The evolution of superimposition on SACB was based on convenience and reproducibility. Fundamental principles of bone development are consistent with the occipital condyles as a more biologic reference for relative craniofacial growth. Actual vertical growth is believed to be greater than displayed in this study, due to the cross-sectional and blended nature of the sample.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-35
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Orthodontics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009
Externally publishedYes


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