Comparison of the accuracy of Monte Carlo and Ray Tracing dose calculation algorithms for multiple target brain treatments on CyberKnife

Godfrey Mukwada, Malgorzata Skorska, Pejman Rowshan Farzad, Martin Ebert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Single plan multiple brain targets (MBT) stereotactic radiosurgery dose difference between Monte Carlo (MC) and Ray Tracing (RT) algorithms has not been studied. A retrospective study and dose measurements were performed to access factors influencing dose differences. Fifty-three RT treatment plans with a total of 209 brain metastases were extracted from Precision Treatment Planning System (TPS). These plans were generated using fixed cones and were delivered using the CyberKnife M6 system. The same treatment plans were recalculated using MC algorithm and keeping the beam parameters unchanged. MC calculated plan parameters were extracted and dose differences were normalised to MC calculated dose. Correlations were investigated. RT and MC calculated off-centre-ratio (OCR) and tissue-phantom-ratio (TPRs) were exported from the TPS and compared with measured. Plans with 5 gross tumour volumes (GTVs) were created on a phantom and dose measured using a CC04 ionisation chamber and microdiamond detector for comparison with calculated doses. Calculated and measured TPR agreed within ± 1% beyond depth of maximum dose. The OCR showed differences up to 4.3% in the penumbra and out-of-field (OOF) regions. Largest RT and MC calculated GTV mean dose difference was - 5.7%. An increase in the number of GTVs and reduction in the geometric separation of metastases were associated with increased differences between RT and MC calculated doses. In conclusion, calculated dose disagreement in MBT depends on the number of GTVs per plan, number of GTVs within a certain separation distance and plan complexity. MC dose calculation is recommended for complex CyberKnife SRS of MBT.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1477-1487
Number of pages11
JournalPhysical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Issue number4
Early online date8 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


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