Comparison of Ophthalmic Medication Prices between the United States and Australia

Ravi Parikh, Paula W. Feng, Laurel Tainsh, Yoichi Sakurada, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Rahul N. Khurana, Houman Hemmati, Yasha S. Modi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Importance: Health care prices may drive differences in health care costs across high-income nations. Adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept are high-cost medications in the United States and Australia. A comparison of their prices over time may elucidate how ophthalmic medication prices contribute to health care costs. Objective: To compare changes in the prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept in the United States and Australia, the highest and lowest spenders on health care, respectively, among high-income nations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective price comparison study examined prices paid by government entities in the United States (Medicare) and Australia (Pharmaceuticals and Benefits Scheme). The analysis and data collection were conducted from March 28 to May 4, 2018, in accordance with guidelines set by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Task Force on Good Research Practices and prior published studies. No human participants or related data were included in this study. Exposures: The change in mean prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept in the United States and Australia. Main Outcomes and Measures: Initial, final, and change in medication price annually from 2013 to 2017 in inflation-adjusted 2017 US dollars. Results: The mean prices (US dollar prices unadjusted for inflation) in 2013 and 2017 in the United States were $1114 ($1053) and $1818 ($1818), respectively, for adalimumab; $2102 ($1988) and $1904 ($1904), respectively, for ranibizumab; and $2074 ($1961) and $1956 ($1956), respectively, for aflibercept. The mean (Australian dollar prices unadjusted for inflation) 2013 and 2017 prices in Australia were $1854 (A $1797) and $1206 (A $1574), respectively, for adalimumab; $2157 (A $2090) and $972 (A $1268), respectively, for ranibizumab; and $2030 ($1967) and $996 ($1300), respectively, for aflibercept. The estimated annual change in price for adalimumab was +12.8% (95% CI, 9.1%-16.5%) in the United States compared with -11.1% (95% CI, -15.0% to -7.1%) in Australia, a difference of 23.9% per year (95% CI, 19.7%-28.0%; P <.001). The annual change in price for ranibizumab was -2.6% (95% CI, -3.9% to -1.3%) in the United States compared with -18.5% (95% CI, -29.3% to -7.8%) in Australia, a difference of 15.9% per year (95% CI, 7.6%-24.2%; P =.003). The annual change in price for aflibercept was -1.5% (95% CI, -2.2% to -0.7%) in the United States compared with -16.9% (95% CI, -25.1% to -8.6%) in Australia, a difference of 15.4% (95% CI, 9.1%-21.8%; P =.001). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study indicate that the prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept significantly decreased during the past 5 years in Australia compared with the United States. These data do not indicate why these differences are noted or what actions might affect future pricing in either country.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)358-362
Number of pages5
JournalJAMA Ophthalmology
Volume137
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019

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Economic Inflation
Health Care Costs
Delivery of Health Care
Costs and Cost Analysis
Advisory Committees
Medicare
aflibercept
Ranibizumab
Adalimumab
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Guidelines
Research
Pharmaceutical Preparations

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Parikh, R., Feng, P. W., Tainsh, L., Sakurada, Y., Balaratnasingam, C., Khurana, R. N., ... Modi, Y. S. (2019). Comparison of Ophthalmic Medication Prices between the United States and Australia. JAMA Ophthalmology, 137(4), 358-362. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.6395
Parikh, Ravi ; Feng, Paula W. ; Tainsh, Laurel ; Sakurada, Yoichi ; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar ; Khurana, Rahul N. ; Hemmati, Houman ; Modi, Yasha S. / Comparison of Ophthalmic Medication Prices between the United States and Australia. In: JAMA Ophthalmology. 2019 ; Vol. 137, No. 4. pp. 358-362.
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abstract = "Importance: Health care prices may drive differences in health care costs across high-income nations. Adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept are high-cost medications in the United States and Australia. A comparison of their prices over time may elucidate how ophthalmic medication prices contribute to health care costs. Objective: To compare changes in the prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept in the United States and Australia, the highest and lowest spenders on health care, respectively, among high-income nations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective price comparison study examined prices paid by government entities in the United States (Medicare) and Australia (Pharmaceuticals and Benefits Scheme). The analysis and data collection were conducted from March 28 to May 4, 2018, in accordance with guidelines set by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Task Force on Good Research Practices and prior published studies. No human participants or related data were included in this study. Exposures: The change in mean prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept in the United States and Australia. Main Outcomes and Measures: Initial, final, and change in medication price annually from 2013 to 2017 in inflation-adjusted 2017 US dollars. Results: The mean prices (US dollar prices unadjusted for inflation) in 2013 and 2017 in the United States were $1114 ($1053) and $1818 ($1818), respectively, for adalimumab; $2102 ($1988) and $1904 ($1904), respectively, for ranibizumab; and $2074 ($1961) and $1956 ($1956), respectively, for aflibercept. The mean (Australian dollar prices unadjusted for inflation) 2013 and 2017 prices in Australia were $1854 (A $1797) and $1206 (A $1574), respectively, for adalimumab; $2157 (A $2090) and $972 (A $1268), respectively, for ranibizumab; and $2030 ($1967) and $996 ($1300), respectively, for aflibercept. The estimated annual change in price for adalimumab was +12.8{\%} (95{\%} CI, 9.1{\%}-16.5{\%}) in the United States compared with -11.1{\%} (95{\%} CI, -15.0{\%} to -7.1{\%}) in Australia, a difference of 23.9{\%} per year (95{\%} CI, 19.7{\%}-28.0{\%}; P <.001). The annual change in price for ranibizumab was -2.6{\%} (95{\%} CI, -3.9{\%} to -1.3{\%}) in the United States compared with -18.5{\%} (95{\%} CI, -29.3{\%} to -7.8{\%}) in Australia, a difference of 15.9{\%} per year (95{\%} CI, 7.6{\%}-24.2{\%}; P =.003). The annual change in price for aflibercept was -1.5{\%} (95{\%} CI, -2.2{\%} to -0.7{\%}) in the United States compared with -16.9{\%} (95{\%} CI, -25.1{\%} to -8.6{\%}) in Australia, a difference of 15.4{\%} (95{\%} CI, 9.1{\%}-21.8{\%}; P =.001). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study indicate that the prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept significantly decreased during the past 5 years in Australia compared with the United States. These data do not indicate why these differences are noted or what actions might affect future pricing in either country.",
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Parikh, R, Feng, PW, Tainsh, L, Sakurada, Y, Balaratnasingam, C, Khurana, RN, Hemmati, H & Modi, YS 2019, 'Comparison of Ophthalmic Medication Prices between the United States and Australia' JAMA Ophthalmology, vol. 137, no. 4, pp. 358-362. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.6395

Comparison of Ophthalmic Medication Prices between the United States and Australia. / Parikh, Ravi; Feng, Paula W.; Tainsh, Laurel; Sakurada, Yoichi; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Khurana, Rahul N.; Hemmati, Houman; Modi, Yasha S.

In: JAMA Ophthalmology, Vol. 137, No. 4, 01.04.2019, p. 358-362.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Parikh, Ravi

AU - Feng, Paula W.

AU - Tainsh, Laurel

AU - Sakurada, Yoichi

AU - Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar

AU - Khurana, Rahul N.

AU - Hemmati, Houman

AU - Modi, Yasha S.

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N2 - Importance: Health care prices may drive differences in health care costs across high-income nations. Adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept are high-cost medications in the United States and Australia. A comparison of their prices over time may elucidate how ophthalmic medication prices contribute to health care costs. Objective: To compare changes in the prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept in the United States and Australia, the highest and lowest spenders on health care, respectively, among high-income nations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective price comparison study examined prices paid by government entities in the United States (Medicare) and Australia (Pharmaceuticals and Benefits Scheme). The analysis and data collection were conducted from March 28 to May 4, 2018, in accordance with guidelines set by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Task Force on Good Research Practices and prior published studies. No human participants or related data were included in this study. Exposures: The change in mean prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept in the United States and Australia. Main Outcomes and Measures: Initial, final, and change in medication price annually from 2013 to 2017 in inflation-adjusted 2017 US dollars. Results: The mean prices (US dollar prices unadjusted for inflation) in 2013 and 2017 in the United States were $1114 ($1053) and $1818 ($1818), respectively, for adalimumab; $2102 ($1988) and $1904 ($1904), respectively, for ranibizumab; and $2074 ($1961) and $1956 ($1956), respectively, for aflibercept. The mean (Australian dollar prices unadjusted for inflation) 2013 and 2017 prices in Australia were $1854 (A $1797) and $1206 (A $1574), respectively, for adalimumab; $2157 (A $2090) and $972 (A $1268), respectively, for ranibizumab; and $2030 ($1967) and $996 ($1300), respectively, for aflibercept. The estimated annual change in price for adalimumab was +12.8% (95% CI, 9.1%-16.5%) in the United States compared with -11.1% (95% CI, -15.0% to -7.1%) in Australia, a difference of 23.9% per year (95% CI, 19.7%-28.0%; P <.001). The annual change in price for ranibizumab was -2.6% (95% CI, -3.9% to -1.3%) in the United States compared with -18.5% (95% CI, -29.3% to -7.8%) in Australia, a difference of 15.9% per year (95% CI, 7.6%-24.2%; P =.003). The annual change in price for aflibercept was -1.5% (95% CI, -2.2% to -0.7%) in the United States compared with -16.9% (95% CI, -25.1% to -8.6%) in Australia, a difference of 15.4% (95% CI, 9.1%-21.8%; P =.001). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study indicate that the prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept significantly decreased during the past 5 years in Australia compared with the United States. These data do not indicate why these differences are noted or what actions might affect future pricing in either country.

AB - Importance: Health care prices may drive differences in health care costs across high-income nations. Adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept are high-cost medications in the United States and Australia. A comparison of their prices over time may elucidate how ophthalmic medication prices contribute to health care costs. Objective: To compare changes in the prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept in the United States and Australia, the highest and lowest spenders on health care, respectively, among high-income nations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective price comparison study examined prices paid by government entities in the United States (Medicare) and Australia (Pharmaceuticals and Benefits Scheme). The analysis and data collection were conducted from March 28 to May 4, 2018, in accordance with guidelines set by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Task Force on Good Research Practices and prior published studies. No human participants or related data were included in this study. Exposures: The change in mean prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept in the United States and Australia. Main Outcomes and Measures: Initial, final, and change in medication price annually from 2013 to 2017 in inflation-adjusted 2017 US dollars. Results: The mean prices (US dollar prices unadjusted for inflation) in 2013 and 2017 in the United States were $1114 ($1053) and $1818 ($1818), respectively, for adalimumab; $2102 ($1988) and $1904 ($1904), respectively, for ranibizumab; and $2074 ($1961) and $1956 ($1956), respectively, for aflibercept. The mean (Australian dollar prices unadjusted for inflation) 2013 and 2017 prices in Australia were $1854 (A $1797) and $1206 (A $1574), respectively, for adalimumab; $2157 (A $2090) and $972 (A $1268), respectively, for ranibizumab; and $2030 ($1967) and $996 ($1300), respectively, for aflibercept. The estimated annual change in price for adalimumab was +12.8% (95% CI, 9.1%-16.5%) in the United States compared with -11.1% (95% CI, -15.0% to -7.1%) in Australia, a difference of 23.9% per year (95% CI, 19.7%-28.0%; P <.001). The annual change in price for ranibizumab was -2.6% (95% CI, -3.9% to -1.3%) in the United States compared with -18.5% (95% CI, -29.3% to -7.8%) in Australia, a difference of 15.9% per year (95% CI, 7.6%-24.2%; P =.003). The annual change in price for aflibercept was -1.5% (95% CI, -2.2% to -0.7%) in the United States compared with -16.9% (95% CI, -25.1% to -8.6%) in Australia, a difference of 15.4% (95% CI, 9.1%-21.8%; P =.001). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study indicate that the prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept significantly decreased during the past 5 years in Australia compared with the United States. These data do not indicate why these differences are noted or what actions might affect future pricing in either country.

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Parikh R, Feng PW, Tainsh L, Sakurada Y, Balaratnasingam C, Khurana RN et al. Comparison of Ophthalmic Medication Prices between the United States and Australia. JAMA Ophthalmology. 2019 Apr 1;137(4):358-362. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.6395