Comparison of neuroprotective efficacy of poly-arginine R18 and R18D (D-enantiomer) peptides following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the Wistar rat and in vitro toxicity studies

Diego Milani, Megan C. Bakeberg, Jane L. Cross, Vince W. Clark, Ryan S. Anderton, David J. Blacker, Neville W. Knuckey, Bruno P. Meloni

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Abstract

We have previously demonstrated that arginine-rich and poly-arginine peptides possess potent neuroprotective properties, with poly-arginine peptide R18 identified as being highly effective at reducing infarct volume following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the Sprague Dawley rat. Since peptides synthesised using D-isoform amino acids have greater stability than L-isoform peptides due to increased resistance to proteolytic degradation, they represent potentially more effective peptide therapeutics. Therefore we compared the neuroprotective efficacy of R18 and its D-enantiomer R18D following permanent MCAO in the Wistar rat. Furthermore, as increased peptide stability may also increase peptide toxicity, we examined the effects of R18 and R18D on cultured cortical neurons, astrocytes, brain endothelial cells (bEND.3), and embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) following a 10-minute or 24-hour peptide exposure duration. The in vivo studies demonstrated that R18D resulted in a greater reduction in mean infarct volume compared to R18 (33%, p = 0.004 vs 12%, p = 0.27) after intravenous administration at 300 nmol/kg 30 minutes after MCAO. Both R18D and R18 reduced cerebral hemisphere swelling to a comparable degree (27%, p = 0.03 and 30%, p = 0.02), and improved neurological assessment scores (1.5, p = 0.02 and 2, p = 0.058 vs 3 for vehicle). No abnormal histological findings specific to peptide treatments were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of kidney, liver, spleen, lung and heart. In vitro studies demonstrated that R18 and R18D were most toxic to neurons, followed by astrocytes, HEK293 and bEND.3 cells, but only at high concentrations and/or following 24-hour exposure. These findings further highlight the neuroprotective properties of poly-arginine peptides, and indicate that R18D at the dose examined is more potent than R18 in Wistar rats, and justify continued investigation of the R18 peptide as a novel neuroprotective agent for stroke.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0193884
JournalPLoS One
Volume13
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018

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Enantiomers
Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction
enantiomers
toxicity testing
arteries
arginine
Toxicity
Arginine
Wistar Rats
Rats
peptides
Peptides
rats
Astrocytes
neuroprotective effect
infarction
Protein Isoforms
astrocytes
Neurons
Kidney

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@article{932dc8cec45c428ab2956ee6c802bf8a,
title = "Comparison of neuroprotective efficacy of poly-arginine R18 and R18D (D-enantiomer) peptides following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the Wistar rat and in vitro toxicity studies",
abstract = "We have previously demonstrated that arginine-rich and poly-arginine peptides possess potent neuroprotective properties, with poly-arginine peptide R18 identified as being highly effective at reducing infarct volume following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the Sprague Dawley rat. Since peptides synthesised using D-isoform amino acids have greater stability than L-isoform peptides due to increased resistance to proteolytic degradation, they represent potentially more effective peptide therapeutics. Therefore we compared the neuroprotective efficacy of R18 and its D-enantiomer R18D following permanent MCAO in the Wistar rat. Furthermore, as increased peptide stability may also increase peptide toxicity, we examined the effects of R18 and R18D on cultured cortical neurons, astrocytes, brain endothelial cells (bEND.3), and embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) following a 10-minute or 24-hour peptide exposure duration. The in vivo studies demonstrated that R18D resulted in a greater reduction in mean infarct volume compared to R18 (33{\%}, p = 0.004 vs 12{\%}, p = 0.27) after intravenous administration at 300 nmol/kg 30 minutes after MCAO. Both R18D and R18 reduced cerebral hemisphere swelling to a comparable degree (27{\%}, p = 0.03 and 30{\%}, p = 0.02), and improved neurological assessment scores (1.5, p = 0.02 and 2, p = 0.058 vs 3 for vehicle). No abnormal histological findings specific to peptide treatments were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of kidney, liver, spleen, lung and heart. In vitro studies demonstrated that R18 and R18D were most toxic to neurons, followed by astrocytes, HEK293 and bEND.3 cells, but only at high concentrations and/or following 24-hour exposure. These findings further highlight the neuroprotective properties of poly-arginine peptides, and indicate that R18D at the dose examined is more potent than R18 in Wistar rats, and justify continued investigation of the R18 peptide as a novel neuroprotective agent for stroke.",
author = "Diego Milani and Bakeberg, {Megan C.} and Cross, {Jane L.} and Clark, {Vince W.} and Anderton, {Ryan S.} and Blacker, {David J.} and Knuckey, {Neville W.} and Meloni, {Bruno P.}",
year = "2018",
month = "3",
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doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0193884",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
journal = "P L o S One",
issn = "1932-6203",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparison of neuroprotective efficacy of poly-arginine R18 and R18D (D-enantiomer) peptides following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the Wistar rat and in vitro toxicity studies

AU - Milani, Diego

AU - Bakeberg, Megan C.

AU - Cross, Jane L.

AU - Clark, Vince W.

AU - Anderton, Ryan S.

AU - Blacker, David J.

AU - Knuckey, Neville W.

AU - Meloni, Bruno P.

PY - 2018/3/1

Y1 - 2018/3/1

N2 - We have previously demonstrated that arginine-rich and poly-arginine peptides possess potent neuroprotective properties, with poly-arginine peptide R18 identified as being highly effective at reducing infarct volume following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the Sprague Dawley rat. Since peptides synthesised using D-isoform amino acids have greater stability than L-isoform peptides due to increased resistance to proteolytic degradation, they represent potentially more effective peptide therapeutics. Therefore we compared the neuroprotective efficacy of R18 and its D-enantiomer R18D following permanent MCAO in the Wistar rat. Furthermore, as increased peptide stability may also increase peptide toxicity, we examined the effects of R18 and R18D on cultured cortical neurons, astrocytes, brain endothelial cells (bEND.3), and embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) following a 10-minute or 24-hour peptide exposure duration. The in vivo studies demonstrated that R18D resulted in a greater reduction in mean infarct volume compared to R18 (33%, p = 0.004 vs 12%, p = 0.27) after intravenous administration at 300 nmol/kg 30 minutes after MCAO. Both R18D and R18 reduced cerebral hemisphere swelling to a comparable degree (27%, p = 0.03 and 30%, p = 0.02), and improved neurological assessment scores (1.5, p = 0.02 and 2, p = 0.058 vs 3 for vehicle). No abnormal histological findings specific to peptide treatments were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of kidney, liver, spleen, lung and heart. In vitro studies demonstrated that R18 and R18D were most toxic to neurons, followed by astrocytes, HEK293 and bEND.3 cells, but only at high concentrations and/or following 24-hour exposure. These findings further highlight the neuroprotective properties of poly-arginine peptides, and indicate that R18D at the dose examined is more potent than R18 in Wistar rats, and justify continued investigation of the R18 peptide as a novel neuroprotective agent for stroke.

AB - We have previously demonstrated that arginine-rich and poly-arginine peptides possess potent neuroprotective properties, with poly-arginine peptide R18 identified as being highly effective at reducing infarct volume following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the Sprague Dawley rat. Since peptides synthesised using D-isoform amino acids have greater stability than L-isoform peptides due to increased resistance to proteolytic degradation, they represent potentially more effective peptide therapeutics. Therefore we compared the neuroprotective efficacy of R18 and its D-enantiomer R18D following permanent MCAO in the Wistar rat. Furthermore, as increased peptide stability may also increase peptide toxicity, we examined the effects of R18 and R18D on cultured cortical neurons, astrocytes, brain endothelial cells (bEND.3), and embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) following a 10-minute or 24-hour peptide exposure duration. The in vivo studies demonstrated that R18D resulted in a greater reduction in mean infarct volume compared to R18 (33%, p = 0.004 vs 12%, p = 0.27) after intravenous administration at 300 nmol/kg 30 minutes after MCAO. Both R18D and R18 reduced cerebral hemisphere swelling to a comparable degree (27%, p = 0.03 and 30%, p = 0.02), and improved neurological assessment scores (1.5, p = 0.02 and 2, p = 0.058 vs 3 for vehicle). No abnormal histological findings specific to peptide treatments were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of kidney, liver, spleen, lung and heart. In vitro studies demonstrated that R18 and R18D were most toxic to neurons, followed by astrocytes, HEK293 and bEND.3 cells, but only at high concentrations and/or following 24-hour exposure. These findings further highlight the neuroprotective properties of poly-arginine peptides, and indicate that R18D at the dose examined is more potent than R18 in Wistar rats, and justify continued investigation of the R18 peptide as a novel neuroprotective agent for stroke.

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DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0193884

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