Comparison of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry with an ion selective electrode to determine sodium and potassium levels in human milk

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Abstract

Sodium (Na), potassium (K), and the ratio Na:K in human milk (HM) may be useful biomarkers to indicate secretory activation or inflammation in the breast. Previously, these elements have been measured in a laboratory setting requiring expensive equipment and relatively large amounts of HM. The aim of this study was to compare measurements of Na and K in HM using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) with small portable ion selective electrode probes for Na and K. Sixty-five lactating women donated 5 mL samples of HM. Samples were analyzed with two ion selective probes (Na and K) and also ICP-OES. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and Bland–Altman plots. Na concentrations were not significantly different when measured with ion selective electrode (6.18 ± 2.47mM; range: 3.59–19.8) and ICP-OES (5.91 ± 3.37 mM; range: 2.59–21.5) (p = 0.20). K concentrations measured using the ion selective electrode (11.7 ± 2.21 mM: range: 7.69–18.1) and ICP-OES (11.1 ± 1.55 mM: range: 7.91–15.2) were significantly different (p = 0.01). However, the mean differences of 0.65 mM would not be clinically relevant when testing at point of care. Compared to ICP-OES, ion selective electrode is sufficiently accurate to detect changes in concentrations of Na and K in HM associated with secretory activation and inflammation in the mammary gland.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1218
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018

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specific ion electrodes
Ion-Selective Electrodes
atomic absorption spectrometry
Human Milk
breast milk
Spectrum Analysis
Potassium
Sodium
potassium
sodium
probes (equipment)
inflammation
Inflammation
lactating women
Human Mammary Glands
mammary glands
breasts
biomarkers
Breast
Biomarkers

Cite this

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title = "Comparison of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry with an ion selective electrode to determine sodium and potassium levels in human milk",
abstract = "Sodium (Na), potassium (K), and the ratio Na:K in human milk (HM) may be useful biomarkers to indicate secretory activation or inflammation in the breast. Previously, these elements have been measured in a laboratory setting requiring expensive equipment and relatively large amounts of HM. The aim of this study was to compare measurements of Na and K in HM using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) with small portable ion selective electrode probes for Na and K. Sixty-five lactating women donated 5 mL samples of HM. Samples were analyzed with two ion selective probes (Na and K) and also ICP-OES. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and Bland–Altman plots. Na concentrations were not significantly different when measured with ion selective electrode (6.18 ± 2.47mM; range: 3.59–19.8) and ICP-OES (5.91 ± 3.37 mM; range: 2.59–21.5) (p = 0.20). K concentrations measured using the ion selective electrode (11.7 ± 2.21 mM: range: 7.69–18.1) and ICP-OES (11.1 ± 1.55 mM: range: 7.91–15.2) were significantly different (p = 0.01). However, the mean differences of 0.65 mM would not be clinically relevant when testing at point of care. Compared to ICP-OES, ion selective electrode is sufficiently accurate to detect changes in concentrations of Na and K in HM associated with secretory activation and inflammation in the mammary gland.",
keywords = "Human milk, ICP-OES, Ion selective electrode, Potassium, Sodium",
author = "Lai, {Ching Tat} and Hazel Gardner and Donna Geddes",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/nu10091218",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "Nutrients",
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T1 - Comparison of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry with an ion selective electrode to determine sodium and potassium levels in human milk

AU - Lai, Ching Tat

AU - Gardner, Hazel

AU - Geddes, Donna

PY - 2018/9/1

Y1 - 2018/9/1

N2 - Sodium (Na), potassium (K), and the ratio Na:K in human milk (HM) may be useful biomarkers to indicate secretory activation or inflammation in the breast. Previously, these elements have been measured in a laboratory setting requiring expensive equipment and relatively large amounts of HM. The aim of this study was to compare measurements of Na and K in HM using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) with small portable ion selective electrode probes for Na and K. Sixty-five lactating women donated 5 mL samples of HM. Samples were analyzed with two ion selective probes (Na and K) and also ICP-OES. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and Bland–Altman plots. Na concentrations were not significantly different when measured with ion selective electrode (6.18 ± 2.47mM; range: 3.59–19.8) and ICP-OES (5.91 ± 3.37 mM; range: 2.59–21.5) (p = 0.20). K concentrations measured using the ion selective electrode (11.7 ± 2.21 mM: range: 7.69–18.1) and ICP-OES (11.1 ± 1.55 mM: range: 7.91–15.2) were significantly different (p = 0.01). However, the mean differences of 0.65 mM would not be clinically relevant when testing at point of care. Compared to ICP-OES, ion selective electrode is sufficiently accurate to detect changes in concentrations of Na and K in HM associated with secretory activation and inflammation in the mammary gland.

AB - Sodium (Na), potassium (K), and the ratio Na:K in human milk (HM) may be useful biomarkers to indicate secretory activation or inflammation in the breast. Previously, these elements have been measured in a laboratory setting requiring expensive equipment and relatively large amounts of HM. The aim of this study was to compare measurements of Na and K in HM using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) with small portable ion selective electrode probes for Na and K. Sixty-five lactating women donated 5 mL samples of HM. Samples were analyzed with two ion selective probes (Na and K) and also ICP-OES. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and Bland–Altman plots. Na concentrations were not significantly different when measured with ion selective electrode (6.18 ± 2.47mM; range: 3.59–19.8) and ICP-OES (5.91 ± 3.37 mM; range: 2.59–21.5) (p = 0.20). K concentrations measured using the ion selective electrode (11.7 ± 2.21 mM: range: 7.69–18.1) and ICP-OES (11.1 ± 1.55 mM: range: 7.91–15.2) were significantly different (p = 0.01). However, the mean differences of 0.65 mM would not be clinically relevant when testing at point of care. Compared to ICP-OES, ion selective electrode is sufficiently accurate to detect changes in concentrations of Na and K in HM associated with secretory activation and inflammation in the mammary gland.

KW - Human milk

KW - ICP-OES

KW - Ion selective electrode

KW - Potassium

KW - Sodium

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