Comparison of collapsibility of the human upper airway during anesthesia and during sleep

Kathleen J Maddison, Jennifer H Walsh, Kelly L Shepherd, Chrianna Bharat, Bradley K Lawther, Peter R Platt, Peter R Eastwood, David R Hillman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The propensities for the upper airway to collapse during anesthesia and sleep are related, although much of our understanding of this relationship has been inferred from clinical observation and indirect measures such as the apnea-hypopnea index. The aim of this study was to use an identical, rigorous, direct measure of upper airway collapsibility (critical closing pressure of the upper airway) under both conditions to allow the magnitude of upper airway collapsibility in each state to be precisely compared.

METHODS: Ten subjects (8 men and 2 women; mean ± SD: age, 40.4 ± 12.1 years; body mass index, 28.5 ± 4.0 kg/m) were studied. Critical closing pressure of the upper airway was measured in each subject on separate days during (1) propofol anesthesia and (2) sleep.

RESULTS: Critical closing pressure of the upper airway measurements were obtained in all 10 subjects during nonrapid eye movement sleep and, in 4 of these 10 subjects, also during rapid eye movement sleep. Critical closing pressure of the upper airway during anesthesia was linearly related to critical closing pressure of the upper airway during nonrapid eye movement sleep (r = 0.64 [95% CI, 0.02-0.91]; n = 10; P = .046) with a similar tendency in rapid eye movement sleep (r = 0.80 [95% CI, -0.70 to 0.99]; n = 4; P = .200). However, critical closing pressure of the upper airway during anesthesia was systematically greater (indicating increased collapsibility) than during nonrapid eye movement sleep (2.1 ± 2.2 vs -2.0 ± 3.2 cm H2O, respectively, n = 10; within-subject mean difference, 4.1 cm H2O [95% CI, 2.32-5.87]; P < .001) with a similar tendency during rapid eye movement sleep (1.6 ± 2.4 vs -1.9 ± 4.3 cm H2O, respectively, n = 4; unadjusted difference, 3.5 cm H2O [95% CI, -0.95 to 7.96]; P = .087).

CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the magnitude of upper airway collapsibility during anesthesia and sleep is directly related. However, the upper airway is systematically more collapsible during anesthesia than sleep, suggesting greater vulnerability to upper airway obstruction in the anesthetized state.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalAnesthesia and Analgesia
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 14 Mar 2019

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Sleep
Anesthesia
Pressure
REM Sleep
Eye Movements
Propofol
Apnea
Airway Obstruction
Body Mass Index
Observation

Cite this

@article{45a3cc57f9164f74a5d7123fe1cd681e,
title = "Comparison of collapsibility of the human upper airway during anesthesia and during sleep",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: The propensities for the upper airway to collapse during anesthesia and sleep are related, although much of our understanding of this relationship has been inferred from clinical observation and indirect measures such as the apnea-hypopnea index. The aim of this study was to use an identical, rigorous, direct measure of upper airway collapsibility (critical closing pressure of the upper airway) under both conditions to allow the magnitude of upper airway collapsibility in each state to be precisely compared.METHODS: Ten subjects (8 men and 2 women; mean ± SD: age, 40.4 ± 12.1 years; body mass index, 28.5 ± 4.0 kg/m) were studied. Critical closing pressure of the upper airway was measured in each subject on separate days during (1) propofol anesthesia and (2) sleep.RESULTS: Critical closing pressure of the upper airway measurements were obtained in all 10 subjects during nonrapid eye movement sleep and, in 4 of these 10 subjects, also during rapid eye movement sleep. Critical closing pressure of the upper airway during anesthesia was linearly related to critical closing pressure of the upper airway during nonrapid eye movement sleep (r = 0.64 [95{\%} CI, 0.02-0.91]; n = 10; P = .046) with a similar tendency in rapid eye movement sleep (r = 0.80 [95{\%} CI, -0.70 to 0.99]; n = 4; P = .200). However, critical closing pressure of the upper airway during anesthesia was systematically greater (indicating increased collapsibility) than during nonrapid eye movement sleep (2.1 ± 2.2 vs -2.0 ± 3.2 cm H2O, respectively, n = 10; within-subject mean difference, 4.1 cm H2O [95{\%} CI, 2.32-5.87]; P < .001) with a similar tendency during rapid eye movement sleep (1.6 ± 2.4 vs -1.9 ± 4.3 cm H2O, respectively, n = 4; unadjusted difference, 3.5 cm H2O [95{\%} CI, -0.95 to 7.96]; P = .087).CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the magnitude of upper airway collapsibility during anesthesia and sleep is directly related. However, the upper airway is systematically more collapsible during anesthesia than sleep, suggesting greater vulnerability to upper airway obstruction in the anesthetized state.",
author = "Maddison, {Kathleen J} and Walsh, {Jennifer H} and Shepherd, {Kelly L} and Chrianna Bharat and Lawther, {Bradley K} and Platt, {Peter R} and Eastwood, {Peter R} and Hillman, {David R}",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1213/ANE.0000000000004070",
language = "English",
journal = "Anesthesia & analgesia",
issn = "0003-2999",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams & Wilkins",

}

Comparison of collapsibility of the human upper airway during anesthesia and during sleep. / Maddison, Kathleen J; Walsh, Jennifer H; Shepherd, Kelly L; Bharat, Chrianna; Lawther, Bradley K; Platt, Peter R; Eastwood, Peter R; Hillman, David R.

In: Anesthesia and Analgesia, 14.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparison of collapsibility of the human upper airway during anesthesia and during sleep

AU - Maddison, Kathleen J

AU - Walsh, Jennifer H

AU - Shepherd, Kelly L

AU - Bharat, Chrianna

AU - Lawther, Bradley K

AU - Platt, Peter R

AU - Eastwood, Peter R

AU - Hillman, David R

PY - 2019/3/14

Y1 - 2019/3/14

N2 - BACKGROUND: The propensities for the upper airway to collapse during anesthesia and sleep are related, although much of our understanding of this relationship has been inferred from clinical observation and indirect measures such as the apnea-hypopnea index. The aim of this study was to use an identical, rigorous, direct measure of upper airway collapsibility (critical closing pressure of the upper airway) under both conditions to allow the magnitude of upper airway collapsibility in each state to be precisely compared.METHODS: Ten subjects (8 men and 2 women; mean ± SD: age, 40.4 ± 12.1 years; body mass index, 28.5 ± 4.0 kg/m) were studied. Critical closing pressure of the upper airway was measured in each subject on separate days during (1) propofol anesthesia and (2) sleep.RESULTS: Critical closing pressure of the upper airway measurements were obtained in all 10 subjects during nonrapid eye movement sleep and, in 4 of these 10 subjects, also during rapid eye movement sleep. Critical closing pressure of the upper airway during anesthesia was linearly related to critical closing pressure of the upper airway during nonrapid eye movement sleep (r = 0.64 [95% CI, 0.02-0.91]; n = 10; P = .046) with a similar tendency in rapid eye movement sleep (r = 0.80 [95% CI, -0.70 to 0.99]; n = 4; P = .200). However, critical closing pressure of the upper airway during anesthesia was systematically greater (indicating increased collapsibility) than during nonrapid eye movement sleep (2.1 ± 2.2 vs -2.0 ± 3.2 cm H2O, respectively, n = 10; within-subject mean difference, 4.1 cm H2O [95% CI, 2.32-5.87]; P < .001) with a similar tendency during rapid eye movement sleep (1.6 ± 2.4 vs -1.9 ± 4.3 cm H2O, respectively, n = 4; unadjusted difference, 3.5 cm H2O [95% CI, -0.95 to 7.96]; P = .087).CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the magnitude of upper airway collapsibility during anesthesia and sleep is directly related. However, the upper airway is systematically more collapsible during anesthesia than sleep, suggesting greater vulnerability to upper airway obstruction in the anesthetized state.

AB - BACKGROUND: The propensities for the upper airway to collapse during anesthesia and sleep are related, although much of our understanding of this relationship has been inferred from clinical observation and indirect measures such as the apnea-hypopnea index. The aim of this study was to use an identical, rigorous, direct measure of upper airway collapsibility (critical closing pressure of the upper airway) under both conditions to allow the magnitude of upper airway collapsibility in each state to be precisely compared.METHODS: Ten subjects (8 men and 2 women; mean ± SD: age, 40.4 ± 12.1 years; body mass index, 28.5 ± 4.0 kg/m) were studied. Critical closing pressure of the upper airway was measured in each subject on separate days during (1) propofol anesthesia and (2) sleep.RESULTS: Critical closing pressure of the upper airway measurements were obtained in all 10 subjects during nonrapid eye movement sleep and, in 4 of these 10 subjects, also during rapid eye movement sleep. Critical closing pressure of the upper airway during anesthesia was linearly related to critical closing pressure of the upper airway during nonrapid eye movement sleep (r = 0.64 [95% CI, 0.02-0.91]; n = 10; P = .046) with a similar tendency in rapid eye movement sleep (r = 0.80 [95% CI, -0.70 to 0.99]; n = 4; P = .200). However, critical closing pressure of the upper airway during anesthesia was systematically greater (indicating increased collapsibility) than during nonrapid eye movement sleep (2.1 ± 2.2 vs -2.0 ± 3.2 cm H2O, respectively, n = 10; within-subject mean difference, 4.1 cm H2O [95% CI, 2.32-5.87]; P < .001) with a similar tendency during rapid eye movement sleep (1.6 ± 2.4 vs -1.9 ± 4.3 cm H2O, respectively, n = 4; unadjusted difference, 3.5 cm H2O [95% CI, -0.95 to 7.96]; P = .087).CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the magnitude of upper airway collapsibility during anesthesia and sleep is directly related. However, the upper airway is systematically more collapsible during anesthesia than sleep, suggesting greater vulnerability to upper airway obstruction in the anesthetized state.

U2 - 10.1213/ANE.0000000000004070

DO - 10.1213/ANE.0000000000004070

M3 - Article

JO - Anesthesia & analgesia

JF - Anesthesia & analgesia

SN - 0003-2999

ER -