Comparison between gradient-dependent hydraulic conductivities of roots using the root pressure probe: the role of pressure propagations and implications for the relative roles of parallel radial pathways

Helen Bramley, Neil Turner, David Turner, S.D. Tyerman

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    34 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Hydrostatic pressure relaxations with the root pressure probe are commonly used for measuring the hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) of roots. We compared the Lp(r) of roots from species with different root hydraulic properties (Lupinus angustifolius L. 'Merrit', Lupinus luteus L. 'Wodjil', Triticum aestivum L. 'Kulin' and Zea mays L. 'Pacific DK 477') using pressure relaxations, a pressure clamp and osmotic gradients to induce water flow across the root. Only the pressure clamp measures water flow under steady-state conditions. Lp(r) determined by pressure relaxations was two- to threefold greater than Lp(r) from pressure clamps and was independent of the direction of water flow. Lp(r) (pressure clamp) was two- to fourfold higher than for Lp(r) (osmotic) for all species except Triticum aestivum where Lp(r) (pressure clamp) and Lp(r) (osmotic) were not significantly different. A novel technique was developed to measure the propagation of pressure through roots to investigate the cause of the differences in Lp(r). Root segments were connected between two pressure probes so that when root pressure (P-r) was manipulated by one probe, the other probe recorded changes in P-r. Pressure relaxations did not induce the expected kinetics in pressure in the probe at the other end of the root when axial hydraulic conductance, and probe and root capacitances were accounted for. An electric circuit model of the root was constructed that included an additional capacitance in the root loaded by a series of resistances. This accounted for the double exponential kinetics for intact roots in pressure relaxation experiments as well as the reduced response observed with the double probe experiments. Although there were potential errors with all the techniques, we considered that the measurement of Lp(r) using the pressure clamp was the most unambiguous for small pressure changes, and provided that sufficient time was allowed for pressure propagation through the root. The differences in Lp(r) from different methods of measurement have implications for the models describing water transport through roots and the potential role of aquaporins.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)861-874
    JournalPlant, Cell and Environment
    Volume30
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2007

    Fingerprint

    root pressure
    root hydraulic conductivity
    Pressure
    probes (equipment)
    water flow
    Lupinus
    capacitance
    Water
    fluid mechanics
    Triticum
    Triticum aestivum
    electronic circuits
    Lupinus luteus
    kinetics
    Lupinus angustifolius
    aquaporins
    Aquaporins
    Hydrostatic Pressure

    Cite this

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    title = "Comparison between gradient-dependent hydraulic conductivities of roots using the root pressure probe: the role of pressure propagations and implications for the relative roles of parallel radial pathways",
    abstract = "Hydrostatic pressure relaxations with the root pressure probe are commonly used for measuring the hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) of roots. We compared the Lp(r) of roots from species with different root hydraulic properties (Lupinus angustifolius L. 'Merrit', Lupinus luteus L. 'Wodjil', Triticum aestivum L. 'Kulin' and Zea mays L. 'Pacific DK 477') using pressure relaxations, a pressure clamp and osmotic gradients to induce water flow across the root. Only the pressure clamp measures water flow under steady-state conditions. Lp(r) determined by pressure relaxations was two- to threefold greater than Lp(r) from pressure clamps and was independent of the direction of water flow. Lp(r) (pressure clamp) was two- to fourfold higher than for Lp(r) (osmotic) for all species except Triticum aestivum where Lp(r) (pressure clamp) and Lp(r) (osmotic) were not significantly different. A novel technique was developed to measure the propagation of pressure through roots to investigate the cause of the differences in Lp(r). Root segments were connected between two pressure probes so that when root pressure (P-r) was manipulated by one probe, the other probe recorded changes in P-r. Pressure relaxations did not induce the expected kinetics in pressure in the probe at the other end of the root when axial hydraulic conductance, and probe and root capacitances were accounted for. An electric circuit model of the root was constructed that included an additional capacitance in the root loaded by a series of resistances. This accounted for the double exponential kinetics for intact roots in pressure relaxation experiments as well as the reduced response observed with the double probe experiments. Although there were potential errors with all the techniques, we considered that the measurement of Lp(r) using the pressure clamp was the most unambiguous for small pressure changes, and provided that sufficient time was allowed for pressure propagation through the root. The differences in Lp(r) from different methods of measurement have implications for the models describing water transport through roots and the potential role of aquaporins.",
    author = "Helen Bramley and Neil Turner and David Turner and S.D. Tyerman",
    year = "2007",
    doi = "10.1111/j.1365-3040.2007.01678.x",
    language = "English",
    volume = "30",
    pages = "861--874",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Comparison between gradient-dependent hydraulic conductivities of roots using the root pressure probe: the role of pressure propagations and implications for the relative roles of parallel radial pathways

    AU - Bramley, Helen

    AU - Turner, Neil

    AU - Turner, David

    AU - Tyerman, S.D.

    PY - 2007

    Y1 - 2007

    N2 - Hydrostatic pressure relaxations with the root pressure probe are commonly used for measuring the hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) of roots. We compared the Lp(r) of roots from species with different root hydraulic properties (Lupinus angustifolius L. 'Merrit', Lupinus luteus L. 'Wodjil', Triticum aestivum L. 'Kulin' and Zea mays L. 'Pacific DK 477') using pressure relaxations, a pressure clamp and osmotic gradients to induce water flow across the root. Only the pressure clamp measures water flow under steady-state conditions. Lp(r) determined by pressure relaxations was two- to threefold greater than Lp(r) from pressure clamps and was independent of the direction of water flow. Lp(r) (pressure clamp) was two- to fourfold higher than for Lp(r) (osmotic) for all species except Triticum aestivum where Lp(r) (pressure clamp) and Lp(r) (osmotic) were not significantly different. A novel technique was developed to measure the propagation of pressure through roots to investigate the cause of the differences in Lp(r). Root segments were connected between two pressure probes so that when root pressure (P-r) was manipulated by one probe, the other probe recorded changes in P-r. Pressure relaxations did not induce the expected kinetics in pressure in the probe at the other end of the root when axial hydraulic conductance, and probe and root capacitances were accounted for. An electric circuit model of the root was constructed that included an additional capacitance in the root loaded by a series of resistances. This accounted for the double exponential kinetics for intact roots in pressure relaxation experiments as well as the reduced response observed with the double probe experiments. Although there were potential errors with all the techniques, we considered that the measurement of Lp(r) using the pressure clamp was the most unambiguous for small pressure changes, and provided that sufficient time was allowed for pressure propagation through the root. The differences in Lp(r) from different methods of measurement have implications for the models describing water transport through roots and the potential role of aquaporins.

    AB - Hydrostatic pressure relaxations with the root pressure probe are commonly used for measuring the hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) of roots. We compared the Lp(r) of roots from species with different root hydraulic properties (Lupinus angustifolius L. 'Merrit', Lupinus luteus L. 'Wodjil', Triticum aestivum L. 'Kulin' and Zea mays L. 'Pacific DK 477') using pressure relaxations, a pressure clamp and osmotic gradients to induce water flow across the root. Only the pressure clamp measures water flow under steady-state conditions. Lp(r) determined by pressure relaxations was two- to threefold greater than Lp(r) from pressure clamps and was independent of the direction of water flow. Lp(r) (pressure clamp) was two- to fourfold higher than for Lp(r) (osmotic) for all species except Triticum aestivum where Lp(r) (pressure clamp) and Lp(r) (osmotic) were not significantly different. A novel technique was developed to measure the propagation of pressure through roots to investigate the cause of the differences in Lp(r). Root segments were connected between two pressure probes so that when root pressure (P-r) was manipulated by one probe, the other probe recorded changes in P-r. Pressure relaxations did not induce the expected kinetics in pressure in the probe at the other end of the root when axial hydraulic conductance, and probe and root capacitances were accounted for. An electric circuit model of the root was constructed that included an additional capacitance in the root loaded by a series of resistances. This accounted for the double exponential kinetics for intact roots in pressure relaxation experiments as well as the reduced response observed with the double probe experiments. Although there were potential errors with all the techniques, we considered that the measurement of Lp(r) using the pressure clamp was the most unambiguous for small pressure changes, and provided that sufficient time was allowed for pressure propagation through the root. The differences in Lp(r) from different methods of measurement have implications for the models describing water transport through roots and the potential role of aquaporins.

    U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2007.01678.x

    DO - 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2007.01678.x

    M3 - Article

    VL - 30

    SP - 861

    EP - 874

    JO - Plant, Cell and Environment.

    JF - Plant, Cell and Environment.

    SN - 0140-7791

    IS - 7

    ER -