Rare perivascular mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with therapeutic properties have been identified in many tissues. Their rarity necessitates extensive in vitro expansion, resulting in spontaneous differentiation, cellular senescence and apoptosis, producing therapeutic products with variable quality and decreased potency. We previously demonstrated that A83-01, a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor inhibitor, maintained clonogenicity and promoted the potency of culture-expanded premenopausal endometrial MSCs using functional assays and whole-transcriptome sequencing. Here, we compared the effects of A83-01 on MSCs derived from postmenopausal endometrium, menstrual blood, placenta decidua-basalis, bone marrow and adipose tissue. Sushi-domain-containing-2 (SUSD2+) and CD34+CD31−CD45− MSCs were isolated. Expanded MSCs were cultured with or without A83-01 for 7 days and assessed for MSC properties. SUSD2 identified perivascular cells in the placental decidua-basalis, and their maternal origin was validated. A83-01 promoted MSC proliferation from all sources except bone marrow and only increased SUSD2 expression and prevented apoptosis in MSCs from endometrial-derived tissues. A83-01 only improved the cloning efficiency of postmenopausal endometrial MSCs (eMSCs), and expanded adipose tissue MSCs (adMSCs) underwent significant senescence, which was mitigated by A83-01. MSCs derived from bone marrow (bmMSCs) were highly apoptotic, but A83-01 was without effect. A83-01 maintained the function and phenotype in MSCs cultured from endometrial, but not other, tissues. Our results also demonstrated that cellular SUSD2 expression directly correlates with the functional phenotype.