Comparative Effects of Biochar, Slag and Ferrous–Mn Ore on Lead and Cadmium Immobilization in Soil

Sajid Mehmood, Muhammad Rizwan, Saqib Bashir, Allah Ditta, Omar Aziz, Li Zhe Yong, Zhihua Dai, Muhammad Akmal, Waqas Ahmed, Muhammad Adeel, Muhammad Imtiaz, Shuxin Tu

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35 Citations (Web of Science)


A variety of remediation approaches have been applied to the heavy metals-contaminated soils, however, the immobilization of metals in co-contaminated soils still not cleared. Therefore, an incubation study was conducted to evaluate the instantaneous effects of different concentrations of biochar (BC), slag (SL) and Fe–Mn ore (FMO) on immobilization of Pb and Cd through the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) by following the the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), CaCl2 and NH4NO3. The sequential extraction of BCR showed decrease in acid soluble fractions, while the residual proportions of Pb and Cd were enhanced with increasing concentrations of SL and BC. Addition of BC significantly lowered the extractable fractions of both metals by TCLP, NH4NO3 and CaCl2 as compared to SL and FMO. Among all amendments, BC incorporation into co-contaminated soil offered promising results for Pb and Cd immobilization. Overall, all amendments showed positive and long-term impact on the reclamation of co-contaminated soil with heavy metals and could deserve advance monitoring studies on a field scale.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)286-292
Number of pages7
JournalBulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018
Externally publishedYes


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